K Roberts, G I
Osadchaya, H V Dsuzev, V G Gorodyanenko and J Tholen
(2002) 'Who Suceeds and Who Flounders? Young People in
East Europe's New Market Economies'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 7, no. 4, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/7/4/roberts.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 13/5/2002 Accepted: 26/9/2002 Published: 30/11/2002
|Own business||Family business||Management||Professional||Clerical||Manual|
|Current Labour market status|
|$500 and over||3||5||8||7||-||-|
|Ed||FT Job||Other job||Unemployed||Total|
|121 - 500||9||21||10||3||17|
|51 - 120||33||42||44||34||40|
|21 - 50||46||29||39||39||33|
|Up to 20||11||5||6||22||7|
|With higher education|
|Ac specialised sec||4||9||5||6||13|
|No higher education|
|Ac specialised sec||1||3||5||4||-|
|$121 - 500||28||15||20||26||19||15|
|$51 - 120||33||46||25||44||36||31|
|$21 - 50||28||31||30||13||35||44|
|Up to $20||3||4||25||13||9||8|
'In Daghestan (the young women's home republic) to earn $100 a month is a dream that can never be fulfilled, but in Moscow it is realistic for me to earn $550 a month, so I can give myself a decent life here... It's a higher level of living. There's more opportunity to realise yourself, to earn money, and there's more freedom to live. Here you are constantly doing something and you get something back.'This latter remark was from a young woman from Vladikavkaz who had no intention of returning to live in her home republic.
'Other regions are five years behind Moscow. Living conditions are better here. Incomes are higher. There are more companies. It's easier to get a job... This is the cultural centre of Russia. There's more entertainment and things like that. There are great differences in infrastructure in Russia. Elsewhere it can be difficult to buy things... I need at least $500 a month to meet my needs. This is the cultural difference. In Moscow young people spend a lot on entertainment, and we're not so family-based... Moscow is a state within a state. Going abroad is not the question. Moscow offers sufficient opportunities. I prefer to stay-in present-day Russia.'
'The bigger the place the better....There are more opportunities in the biggest cities...Capital cities always get attention and investment. In Ukraine Kiev is best. All kinds of jobs there are better paid... But Dneipropetrovsk is OK. It's far better than being in a village.'Most of the young men in the Dneipropetrovsk focus group (but none of the women) had already travelled (to Moscow and other parts of Russia) to earn money.
|1 + 2||20||13||37||-||6|
|4 + 5||30||45||29||52||36|
|Family Class||Secondary ed||Higher ed|
|1 + 2||19||15||16||33||16||18||14|
|4 + 5||35||39||39||29||41||36||42|
|1 + 2||21||17||13||20||24||26||18||8|
|4 + 5||39||31||43||29||31||31||35||45|
1 and 2 =
3 = getting by
4 and 5 = floundering
'It depends on education in spite of everything else... It's personal characteristics... Ambition... No, it's just luck, meeting the right person or having a relationship with someone in power, then you don't need education... It's down to me. I set the goal, and I'll reach my goal...No, it's all done through families.'Most of the young people in the focus groups had already held two, three, four or more jobs. Some had two or more jobs at the time of the focus groups. They knew that their positions were not secure. They had obtained their current main jobs in a variety of ways.
'I replied to a newspaper advert... to an internet advert... I just left my CV with the company... it was a personal contact... I was asked to join the firm... It's my father's business.'
'The weak connections between education and labour market success will be temporary. Russia is moving towards Europe.'When asked how they would educate their own children the young people in Moscow and Dneipropetrovsk expressed a preference for private education (at certain stages) and stressed the importance of foreign languages.
'I'll send them to a good kindergarten where they'll learn lots of different subjects, maybe foreign languages, but otherwise I'll make sure that they learn languages at home... I'll send them to a private kindergarten. The state ones have too large classes and illnesses are spread around... I'd like them to attend a specialised foreign languages secondary school... I'll pay for their higher education... Education is very good in Russia but I'd like them to go abroad for languages... I'll use a private school in Moscow, then a state university, then a foreign school.'One young woman in Dneipropetrovsk was already paying for her pre-school daughter to learn English. It is likely that, when they become parents, these young Russians and Ukrainians from our focus groups will be earning enough to realise their aspirations. If so, they will play their parts in re-establishing normal relationships between family origins, educational attainments, and labour market outcomes.
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