and Katherine Watson (2003) 'Desire Lines: 'Queering'
Health and Social Welfare'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 8, no. 1, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/8/1/hicks.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 5/12/2001 Accepted: 26/2/2003 Published: 28/2/2003
A mainstream civil rights strategy cannot deliver genuine freedom or full equality for one fundamental reason: the goal of winning mainstream tolerance...differs from the goal of winning liberation or changing social institutions in lasting, long-term ways (Vaid 1995:3).
If we content ourselves with a basically warmhearted, commonsense approach to caring as an essence of nursing, we may end up with idiosyncratic attitudes being accepted as legitimate answers to nursing problems (Halldorsdottir 1997:107).
...homosexuality and heterosexuality do not represent a true pair, two mutually referential contraries, but a hierarchical opposition in which heterosexuality defines itself implicitly by constituting itself as the negation of homosexuality. Heterosexuality defines itself without problematising itself, it elevates itself as a privileged and unmarked term, by abjecting and problematising homosexuality. Heterosexuality, then, depends on homosexuality to lend it substance - and to enable it to acquire by default its status as a default, as a lack of difference or an absence of abnormality" (Halperin 1995:44, emphasis in original).
The cultural ideal of the United States is assimilation, or the process of diverse racial and ethnic groups coming to share a common mainstream culture. Lesbian, gay, or bisexual clients may fall on any point along the continuum of acculturation, may or may not be assimilated in all aspects of their lives, and may or may not experience the anomie that results from cultural dissonance (Appleby & Anastas 1998:102).
Were it not for the very strong and apparently widespread bias in the direction of the androcentric norm, Masters and Johnson would have been the laughing stock of the medical community (Maines 1999:119).
We have to reverse things a bit. Rather than saying what we said at one time, "Let's try to reintroduce homosexuality into the general norm of social relations," let's say the reverse - "No! Let's escape as much as possible from the type of relations that society proposes for us and try to create in the empty space where we are new relational possibilities."
2For earlier writings on the dynamics of 'adding in' see Kitzinger (1987); Stanley & Wise (1983).
3The DipSW is being phased out to be replaced by a new BA Social Work starting in 2003.
4Palgrave Publishers Ltd., 'Social Work & Social Policy' catalogue, Jan. 2002.
5The Central Council for Education & Training in Social Work (CCETSW) published its 'Paper 30' in 1989 (CCETSW 1989), but this was substantially revised (CCETSW 1995) following charges that social work had become 'politically correct' and obsessed with anti-discrimination (Pinker 1993). However, neither Paper 30 nor its successor was particularly concerned with lesbians and gay men.
6Heteronormativity can be defined as that state in which heterosexuality "thinks of itself as the elemental form of human association, as the very model of inter-gender relations, as the indivisible basis of all community, and as the means of reproduction without which society wouldn't exist" (Warner 1993: xxi).
7In an editorial to the 'gay issue' of their magazine, the group argued that social welfare had tended to view homosexuality as a problem needing treatment (remember that in the 1970s 'homosexuality' was still a classifiable mental disorder), and that lesbians and gay men were always viewed as clients but never as practitioners. Therefore the 'homosexual' was viewed as 'other' and lesbians were rarely even considered. These were "ideologies perpetuating the supremacy of heterosexual norms and the oppression of homosexuals" (Charing et al. 1975:2).
8Examples include Logan et al. 1996, Brown 1998; Wilton 2000.
9For a critique of this, and a very different perspective, see Nayan Shah (1993) or Vivien Ng (1997).
10Unfortunately Segal (1999) plays this same game herself, however, by representing only a limited version of queer theory (what we might term the 'lifestyle/diversity' version rather than one concerned with sexual discourses), in order to critique it.
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