Gill Hubbard (2000)
'The Usefulness of Indepth Life History Interviews for Exploring the
Role of Social Structure and Human Agency in Youth Transitions'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 4, no. 4, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/4/4/hubbard.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 19/10/1999 Accepted: 22/2/2000 Published: 29/2/2000
'Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past.'
'They split up in the July and I was supposed to leave in September and, eh, it was just a really bad time, I mean, they were.. she was tearing my Dad to shreds...then one morning out of the blue I came down the stairs with a hangover and my Mum was like "Aye, me an' your Dad are splittin' up, by the way, I tried to kill myself last night". Well, the worst of it was I had to go away..I had to go away on holiday booked... I had to leave my little sister behind to deal with it, which was a bit.. a bit strange, but there.. there wasn't very much that I could do about it. I mean they did it.'
'Well, em Edinburgh because nearly all my friends are here which is good, and its something that I need, to have people around me. Also, its close to home, I can go home any time I want and it was close to..close to my fiancé, cause I was engaged to him when I moved away.'
'Well, I didn't mind working in the lab, it was fine but I wasn't going anywhere and the pay's not very good.. I was sort of strugglin' 'y get by on that. There was no way I could've been independent on it. I had to live with my parents. So, there wasn't really any opportunity to move any further and I thought "Well I've always wanted to do it.. I've always wanted to go to college.. I've got a brain in my head.. I'm wasting it here, em, if I don't do it now, I never will" so I had nothing to lose and I strangely, even though I was in another serious relationship, (laughter) I managed to move this time.'
'my boyfriend and I had split up the next again January and I moved.. I stayed in the house on my own for a few months.. I moved back to my Mum's in about May because I couldn't afford to stay in Berwick so I lived at my Mum's and worked at Berwick still.'
'Em, we met, we were out in the pub one night and my friend fancied his mate and I shouted over "She fancies your mate."...We just got to know each other as friends and then we started to go out wi' each other after that. Went out 'y the pub.'
'my Mum was quite annoyed to start wi'. Just sayin' "What you gonna do? I mean you can't stop workin' cause you need the money", but I worked right up to when I was seven months and I got all the stuff that I needed for the baby.'
'I would love to get into the nursing profession eventually, get myself a decent wage...like, in a hospital, like, in the local hospital if possible. Cause I dinny really want 'y move away to do it, just for the bairn's school and stuff...I'm tryin' 'y think about getting him grown up a wee bit first and get him'y school. Like the primary school, and they I'll think about doin' that.'
'usually ma husband now. Cause I don't get to see my sister as much. It's the only person I really trust. I don't trust my friends that much now.'
'Like I have to borrow money off 'y people like to get shopping for me. Cause we havny enough money, cause you've got council tax.'
'well I ended up gettin' into a really serious relationship at the age of sixteen... I do think that it makes it easier to have a serious relationship if you're able to stay the night with somebody every night, any night you want.'
'I don't know, I think it's maybe the neighbour fi' downstairs. We've got that many friends and it's terrible how you can't have your friends in the house, I think it's pure jealousness if you ask me.'
'It's like you're pressurised... to have a relationship wi' someone because you can't play the field, like not even if you're like, it's completely innocent.. not even if you're goin' out like at the weekend and kissin' a couple 'y guys and goin' away home. You can't do that here cause you're.. automatically you're a whore...You're pressurised into a serious relationship.'
'It was great when I was that age because all my friends were there, we were all getting drunk all the time and I'm sure we had a terrible reputation but we didn't really give a shit at the time. Yeah, I really enjoyed it then, when I was younger. But you can't get away with fallin' about drunk in the streets when you're twenty-three years old. (Laughter)It's not the city.'
'I saw my Mum kissing my friend's ex-boyfriend and my ex-boyfriend, both of them on the same night, on the dance floor...these were people who were my age, not her age.' I mean like people were laughin' at her "You silly old slapper, what are you playin' at...she's an embarrassment but now that I'm livin' up here, it doesn't bother me so much. But it's no' very pleasant for me, like, when I was like twenty-one, twenty-two years old, to go down for a drink in the pub and there's ma Mum absolutely mortal, like makin' a complete idiot of herself in the pub. It's like, "No I think that should be me that's doin' that, not you".
ASHTON, D. & FIELD, D. (1976) Young Workers. London: Hutchinson.
BAUDRILLARD, J. (1988) Selected Writings. Cambridge Polity Press: Cambridge.
BECK, U. (1992) Risk Society. London: Sage Publications.
BERGER, R. (1995) Agency, structure, and Jewish survival of the holocaust: a life history study, The Sociological Quarterly, Vol.36, No.1, p.15-36.
BERGER, P. & LUCKMANN, T. (1971) The Social Construction of Reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
BERTAUX, D. (1981) Life histories in the bakers' trade, in D. Bertaux (editor) Biography and Society: The Life History Approach in the Social Sciences,Beverly Hills, C.A., Sage.
BLUMER, H. (1979) Critiques of Research in the Social Sciences: an Appraisal of Thomas and Znaniecki's the Polish Peasant in Europe and America, New Jersey, Transaction.
BOURDIEU, P. (1977) Outline of Theory of Practice. London: CUP.
CALLINICOS, A. (1987) Making History. Polity Press: Cambridge.
COHEN, A, (1985), The Symbolic Construction of Community, London, Tavistock.
COLES, B. (1995) Youth and Social Policy. London: University College London.
CONNELL, R. (1991) Live Fast and Die Young: The Construction of Masculinity Among Young Working Class Men on the Margin of the Labour Market, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, Vol.27, No.2, p.141-171.
CORTAZZI, M. (1993) Narrative Analysis, London, Falmer Press.
CROMPTON, R. (1997) Women and Work in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
CURRIE, C., Todd, J. & Thomson, C. (1997) Health Behaviours of Scottish School Children. Report 6: Sex Education, Personal Relationships, Sexual Behaviour and HIV/Aids Knowledge and Attitudes in 1990 & 1994. Health Education Board for Scotland & Research Unit in Health and Behaviour Change, University of Edinburgh.
DENZIN, N. (1978) The Research Act: a Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
DENZIN, N. (1982) Contributions of Anthropology and Sociology to Qualitative Research Methods, in E. Kuhns & S. Martorana (editors) New Directions for Institutional Research: Qualitative Methods For Institutional Research, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
DENZIN, N. (1989) Interpretive Biography, Newbury Park, C.A., Sage.
DE GAULEJAC, V. (1997) Clinical sociology and life histories, International Sociology, Vol.12, No.2, p.175-190.
EVANS, K. & FURLONG, A., (1997) Metaphors of Youth Transitions: Niches, Pathways, Trajectories or Navigations in Bynner, J., Chisholm, L. & Furlong, A. (editors) Youth, Citizenship and Social Change in a European Context. Aldershot: Ashgate.
FEATHERSTONE, M, (1995), Undoing Culture - Globalisation, Postmodernism And Identity, London, Sage.
FENSTERMACHER, G. (1997), On narrative, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol.13, No.1, p.119-124.
FURLONG, A., Biggart, A. & Cartmel, F.(1996), 'Neighbourhoods, Opportunity Structures and Occupational Aspirations,' Sociology. Vol.30, No.3, p.551-566.
FURLONG, A. & Cartmel, F. (1997) Young People and Social Change : Individualization and Risk in Late Modernity. Buckingham: Open University Press.
GEERTZ, C. (1988) Works and Lives: the Anthropologist as Author, Stanford, Stanford University Press.
GIDDENS, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Cambridge Polity Press.
GIDDENS, A. (1991) Modernity and Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Cambridge Polity Press.
GRIFFIN, C. (1985). Typical Girls. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
HABERMAS, J.(1986) The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol.1 : Reason and the Rationalization Of Society, Boston: Beacon Press.
HABERMAS, J. (1987) The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol.2: The Critique of Functionalist Reason, Cambridge: Polity.
JONES, G. (1995) Leaving Home. Buckingham: Open University Press.
JONES, G. (1999) 'The Same People in the Same Places? Socio-spatial Identities and Migration in Youth.' Sociology, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 1-22.
JONES, G. & JAMIESON, L. (1997) Young People in Rural Scotland: Getting Out and Staying On. CES Briefing, No.13, December, Centre for Educational Sociology, University of Edinburgh.
JOSEPH ROWNTREE FOUNDATION (1998) Divorce and Separation: The Outcomes for Children. Ref 6108, June, Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York.
LANGNESS, L. (1965) The Life History In Anthropological Science, New York; Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
LAYDER, D. (1994) Understanding Social Theory. London:Sage.
LUKEN, P. & VAUGHAN, S. (1999) Life History and the Critique of American Sociological Practice, Sociological Inquiry, Vol.69, No.3, p.404-25.
LYOTARD, J .(1984) The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
MARX, K. (1968) Eighteenth Brumaire. Marx & Engels Selected Works, Vol.1, London: Lawrence & Wishart.
MILES, M. & CRUSH, J. (1993), Personal narratives as interactive texts - collecting and interpreting migrant life histories, Professional Geographer, Vol.45, No.1, p.84-129.
NEW EARNINGS SURVEY (1996) London: Office for National Statistics.
PAVIS, S., PLATT, S. & HUBBARD, G. (2000 forthcoming) Young People in Rural Scotland: Pathways to Inclusion And Exclusion, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
PLUMMER, K. (1990) Herbert Blumer and the Life History Tradition, Symbolic Interaction, Vol.13, No.2, p.125-144.
ROBERTS, K. (1995) Career Trajectories and The Mirage of Increased Social Mobility, in I. Batres & G. Risborough (editors) Youth and Inequality. Buckingham: Open University Press.
ROBERTS, K.(1997) Structure and Agency: the new youth research agenda', in J. Bynner, L. Chisholm, A. & Furlong (editors) Youth, Citizenship and Social Change in a European Context. Aldershot: Ashgate.
RUBINSTEIN, R. (1995) The engagement of life history and the life review among the aged: a research case study, Journal of Aging Studies, Vol.9, No.3, p.187-203.
SHARPE, S. (1994), 2nd edition, Just Like a Girl: How Girls Learn to be Women : From The Seventies to the Nineties. London: Penguin.
SIMPSON, C. (1999) Flimsy Future for Rag Trade, The Herald, January 20th.
SOKOLOVSKY, M. (1996) Case Study as a Research Method to Study Life Histories of Elderly People: Some Ideas and a Case Study of a Case Study, Journal of Aging Studies, Vol.10, No.4, p.281-294.
STEARNS, G. (1998) Reflexivity and Moral Agency: Restoring Possibility to Life History Research, Frontiers: A Journal of Womens Studies, Vol.19, No.3, p.58-71.
SYPS (1989/91) Centre for Educational Sociology, University of Edinburgh.
SURRIDGE, P. & RAFFE, D. (1995) The Participation of 16-19 yearOolds in Education and Training. Recent Trends. CES Briefing Paper No.1, University of Edinburgh.
THOMAS, W. & ZNANIECKI, F. (1958) The Polish Peasant in Europe & America, N.Y. Denver (first published in 1919-1921). Cited in Plummer (1990).
TIMMS, D. (1978) Social Bases to Social Areas, in D. Herbert & R. Johnson (editors), 'Social Areas in Cities,' Chichester: Wiley.
WALSH, D. (1998) Structure/Agency, in C. Jenks (editor) Core Social Dichotomies, London, Sage.
WATSON, J. (1993) Life history Meets Economic Theory - the Experiences of Three Working Class Women in the Local Labor Market, Work, Employment & Society, Vol.7, No.3, p.411-435.
WILLMOTT, P. & Thomas, D. (1984), Community in Social Policy, London, Policy Studies Institute.
WILLIS, P. (1977) Learning to Labour : How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Aldershot: Gower.