Barry Wellman (2000)
'Changing Connectivity: A Future History of Y2.03K'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 4, no. 4, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/4/4/wellman.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 24/2/2000 Accepted: 24/2/2000 Published: 29/2/2000
2"Affordances" is a term widely used in the study of human computer interaction (Norman 1999). Erin Bradner (2000) writing for computer scientists, has coined the term "social affordances" to emphasize the social as well as individual implications of the technological features of computer-supported communication networks and human-computer interfaces. See also Gaver (1996).
3I focus on the opportunities and transformations for communities that computerized communication networks affords. Although this will seem natural to most computer scientists, when many sociologists think about the future, they think about with interpersonal abuses or righting structural wrongs (see Risman, Tomaskovic-Devey and Dimes 2000). I do not want to be overly pollyanna-ish: the changes I am chronicling can easily evoke major social problems: lessened privacy, increased surveillance, machine-dependent vulnerability to computerized crime and breakdown (Forster 1909); the inadequacy of lives lived predominantly online. To address these issues requires more space and time than I have available here.
4"If you build it, they will come," is as likely in computer-supported communication as it is in building expressways and the Field of Dreams movie. Already "internet traffic reports" are being made available (Stellin 2000; www.internettrafficreport.com).
5Examples are Ricochet [http://www.ricochet.net/], Bell Canada's ExpressVu [http://www.bell.ca/en/corp/innovations/technologies/market/], and the just announced Microsoft-Gilat alliance [http://news.excite.com/news/zd0002187/07/gilat-deal-shows].
6These examples come from Garton and Wellman (1995).
7For a discussion of how this affects home-based teleworkers, see Salaff, Wellman and Dimitrova (1998).
BARTHÉLMY, Dominique and Phillippe Contamine. 1985 . "The Use of Private Space." Pp 395-505 in A History of Private Life, Volume 2, Revelations of the Medieval World, edited by Georges Duby and translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
BASTANI, Susan. 2000. "Muslim Women On-line." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Toronto, Toronto, January.
BRADNER, Erin. 2000. "Understanding Groupware Adoption: The Social Affordances of Computer_Mediated Communication among Distributed Groups." Thesis Proposal, Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, February.
BUXTON, Bill. 1992. "Telepresence: Integrating Shared Task and Person Spaces."Presented to the Graphics Interface Conference, Vancouver, May.
CASTELLS, Manuel. 1996. The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
CASTELLS, Manuel. 1998. End of Millennium. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
COHEN, Joyce. 2000. "Love, Honor, Cherish. But Reveal My Password?" New York Times,February 17: D1, D9.
CONRATH, Chris. 2000. "Dismantling the Tower of Babel." ComputerWorld Canada, February 25: 34-36.
CONTRACTOR, Noshir S., Dan Zink and Mike Chan. 1998. "IKNOW: A Tool to Assist and Study the Creation, Maintenance, and Dissolution of Knowledge Networks." Presented to the Sunbelt Social Networks Conference, Sitges, Spain, May.
DAMER, Bruce. 1996. "Inhabited Virtual Worlds: A New Frontier for Interaction Design". Interactions, September: 27-34.
EMMET, R. 1982. "VNET or GRIPENET." Datamation: 48-58
FISCHER, Claude. 1992. America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940. Berkeley: University of California Press.
FONER, Leonard. 1997. "Yenta: A Multi-Agent, Referral-Based Matching System." Presented to the International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA.
FORSTER, E[dward] M[organ]. 1909. "The Machine Stops." In The Eternal Moment and Other Stories. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
GARTON, Laura and Barry Wellman. 1995. "The Social Uses of Electronic Mail in Organizations: A Review of the Research." Communication Yearbook 18: 434-53.
GAVER, William. 1996. "Affordances for Interaction: The Social is Material for Design." Ecological Psychology 8: 111-29.
GIBSON, William. 1984. Neuromancer. New York: Ace Science Fiction.
HAMPTON, Keith and Barry Wellman. 1999. "Examining Community in the Digital Neighborhood: Early Results from Canada's Wired Suburb." Forthcoming in Digital Cities: Experiences, Technologies and Future Perspectives, edited by Toru Ishida and Katherine Isbister. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000.
HEGERING, Heinz-Gerd, Sebastian Abeck and Bernhard Neumair. 1999. Integrated Management of Networked Systems: Concepts, Architectures, and Their Operational Application. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
KANFER, Alaina. 1997. "Humanizing the Net: Social Navigation With a "Know-Who" Email Agent." Presented to the Conference on Human Factors and The Web, Denver, June.
KLING, Rob and Suzanne Iacono. 1984. "Computing as an Occasion for Social Control." Journal of Social Issues 40 (3): 77-96.
KLODAWSKY, Helene, director and writer. 1999. What If: A Film about Judith Merril. Montreal: Imageries, producer. First shown on the Space Channel, February.
KOCHEN, Manfred (ed.). 1989. The Small World. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
KRAUT, Robert E., Mark Miller and Jane Siegel. 1996. "Collaboration in Performance of Physical Tasks: Effects on Outcomes and Communication." Presented at CSCW '96 Workshop on CSCW and Organizational Learning, Cambridge, MA.
KRAUT, Robert, Michael Patterson, Vicki Lundmark, Sara Kiesler, Trindas Mukopadhyay and William Scherlis. 1998. "Internet Paradox: A Social Technology that Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being?" American Psychologist 53 (9): 1017-1031.
LATANÉ, Bibb and John Darley. 1976. Help in a Crisis: Bystander Response to an Emergency. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
LESSING, Doris. 1969. The Four-Gated City. New York: Knopf.
LICKLIDER, J.C.R. 1965. Libraries of the Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
MANN, Steve. 1998. "Wearable Intelligent Signal Processing" Proceedings of the IEEE 86, 11 (Nov): 2123_51.
MANTEI, Marilyn, Ronald Baecker, Abigail Sellen, William Buxton, Thomas Milligan and Barry Wellman. 1991. Pp. 203-208 in "Experiences in the Use of a Media Space. Reaching Through Technology." Proceedings of the CHI '91 Conference. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
MERRIL, Judith. 1976. The Best of Judith Merril. New York: Warner.
NONNECKE, Blair and Jennifer Preece. 1998. "Lurking as Participation in Online Communities." Working Paper, Department of Information Systems, University of Maryland Baltimore County August.
NORMAN, Donald. 1999. "Affordance, Conventions, and Design." Interactions, May-June, pp. 38-44.
ODLYZKO, Andrew. 1997. "The Slow Evolution of Electronic Publishing." Working Paper, AT&T Labs-Research, http://www.research.att.com/~amo/doc/slow.evolution.txt
OGBURN, William F. 1950. "Social Evolution Reconsidered." Pp. 369-93 in Social Change, edited by William F. Ogburn. New York: Viking.
PERIN, C. 1991. "Electronic Social Fields in Bureaucracies." Communications of the ACM 34(12): 75-82.
REYNOLDS, Malvina. 1963. "Little Boxes". New York: Schroeder Music.
RHEINGOLD, Howard. 1993. The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
RHEINGOLD, Howard. 2000. The Virtual Community. revised edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
RISMAN, Barbara, Donald Tomaskovic-Devey and Martha Dimes, eds. 2000. "Utopian Visions: Engaged Sociologies for the Twenty-First Century." Special issue of Contemporary Sociology 29 (1), January.
RUPPE, David. 1999. "CIA Yanks Deutch Clearance". ABC News World, February 18: http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/DailyNews/deutchcia_990820.html
SALAFF, Janet, Barry Wellman and Dimitrina Dimitrova. 1998. "There is a Time and Place for Teleworking." Pp. 11-31 in Teleworking Environments: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Telework, Sept 1-4, edited by Reima Suomi, Paul Jackson, Laura Hollmén and Mats Aspnäs. Turku, Finland: Turku Center for Computer Science, General Publication No. 8.
SCHNAARS, Steven. 1989. Megamistakes: Forecasting and the Myth of Rapid Technological Change. New York: Free Press.
SCHIESEL, Seth. 2000. "Zagat Survey Gets Investment for Expansion." New York Times on the Web, February 14. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/library/dining/021400zagat.html
STAPLEDON, W. Olaf. 1930. Last and First Men: A Story of the Near and Far Future. London: Methuen.
STELLIN, Susan. 2000. "The News Media Provide Regular Updates on Everything from Traffic to Weather. So Why Not an `Internet Update'?" New York Times, February 21: C4
STEPHENSON, Neal. 1992. Snow Crash. New York: Bantam.
STRONG, Rob and Bill Gaver. 1996. "Feather, Scent, and Shaker: Supporting Simple Intimacy." Presented at the CSCW'96 Workshop on CSCW and Organizational Learning, Cambridge, MA, November.
THÉBERT, Yvon. 1985 . "Private Life and Domestic Architecture in Roman Africa." Pp. 313-410 in A History of Private Life, Volume 1, From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, edited by Paul Veyne and translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
WARD, Peter. 1999. A History of Domestic Space: Privacy and the Canadian Home. Vancouver: UBC Press.
WARWICK, Kevin. 2000. "Cyborg 1.0." Wired, February: 145-51.
WEINSTEIN, Lauren. 1999. "Just a Matter of Bandwidth." Communications of the ACM 41, 4 (April): 120.
WELLMAN, Barry. 1979. "The Community Question." American Journal of Sociology 84: 1201-31.
WELLMAN, Barry. 1997. "An Electronic Group is Virtually a Social Network." Pp. 179-205 in Culture of the Internet, edited by Sara Kiesler. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
WELLMAN, Barry. 1998. "Judith Merril: A Great New York Canadian" SOL Rising 20, January: 12
WELLMAN, Barry. 1999. "The Network Community." Pp. 1-48 in Networks in the Global Village, edited by Barry Wellman. Boulder, CO: Westview.
WELLMAN, Barry. 2000. "Physical Place and Cyber-Place: The Rise of Networked Individualism." International Journal for Urban and Regional Research, December.
WELLMAN, Barry and Barry Leighton. 1979. "Networks, Neighborhoods and Communities." Urban Affairs Quarterly 14: 363-90.
WENDERS, Wim, director. 1991. Until the Ends of the Earth [Bis ans Ende der Welt]. Film written by Peter Carey. Starring Solveig Dommartin, William Hurt, Sam Neill, Max von Sydow and Jeanne Moreau. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros.
WENGER, Etienne. Communities of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ZUBOFF, Shoshona. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books.