Martin, M. (1997) 'Critical
Education for Participatory Research'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 2, no. 2, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/2/8.html>
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Received: 16/9/96 Accepted: 8/4/97 Published: 30/6/97
Poor people have many priorities. What matters most to them often differs from what outsiders assume. If poor people's realities are to come first, development professionals have to be sensitive, to decentralize, and to empower, enabling poor people to conduct their own analysis and express their own multiple priorities. (Chambers, 1994: p. 10 [in Novak, 1996: p. 92])
While PR builds on the Freirian notion of man's alienation in the world, it still too often minimizes or ignores women's alienation from a man-made world. (Maguire, 1996: p. 30)
There is no such thing as neutral education ... education either facilitates the integration of generations into the logic of the present system and brings conformity to it, or it becomes the 'practice of freedom', the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world (Freire, 1972: p. 38).
Recognizing that they can be part of the problem, rather than simply accepting that what they do invariably benefits the poor, is an important first step (Novak 1996: p. 91).
|Mode of Participation||Involvement of Local People||Relationship of Research and Action to Local People|
|Cooption||Token; representatives are chosen, but no real input or power||On|
|Compliance||Tasks are assigned, with incentives; outsiders decide agenda and direct the process||For|
|Consultation||Local opinions asked, outsiders analyze and decide on a course of action||For/with|
|Cooperation||Local people work together with outsiders to determine priorities, responsibility remains with outsiders for directing the process||With|
|Co-learning||Local people and outsiders share their knowledge, to create new understanding, and work together to form action plans, with outsider facilitation||With/by|
|Collective action||Local people set their own agenda and mobilize to carry it out, in the absence of outside initiators and facilitators||By|
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