Catterall, M. and Maclaran, P.
(1997) 'Focus Group Data and Qualitative Analysis Programs: Coding the Moving
Picture as Well as the Snapshots'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 2, no. 1, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/1/6.html>
To cite from articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 18/11/96 Accepted: 18/3/97 Published: 31/3/97
MEMO: (In response to a general discussion on gender issues she is fairly dismissive as regards its relevance to her organisation)
TM1: "I don't find it [gender] a problem. There are so many women my organization at a managerial level that all the men are used to us"
MEMO: (As the group proceeds and participants discuss friendships and confidants at work she acknowledges the following:-)
TM2: "I wouldn't confide in male colleagues because I don't want them to think that we're weaker. I wouldn't want them to feel that they have somehow got somebody second best because I'm a woman. I wouldn't want to give them any excuse wrong. So I would confide in a female."
MEMO: (Someone then asks whether male colleagues would confide in her and she replies 'no' but adds:-)
TM3: "I think if they did confide in you it would be a sort of vindication of your professionalism that you had arrived, that you were at that stage where you were worthy of being confided in."
MEMO: (Sometime later she comments as regards her home life and family responsibilities)
TM4: "I have a baby and when I leave him off and he's bawling and screaming I feel, oh, this is awful. I get into the car and shut the door. I make myself totally switch off. Then I find I haven't thought of him at all for quite a considerable time and that makes me feel awful too but I know I can't do everything."
MEMO: (There is increasing rapport between respondents as all discuss aspects of balancing family/work. TM more than the others believes that it is not appropriate to discuss home issues at work)
TM5: "I work with a girl and she's always buying time to work and she's always talking about things, which I mean, I don't mind, it's just conversation. But if you have male colleagues, mind you, you wouldn't discuss those things really."
MEMO: (Participants then discuss the reverse - bringing work back home which is a situation which applies to several)
TM6: "That's interesting. I definitely take work back home with me. I thought it was just me, I thought I'm just that particular personality - I'm conscientious and I try very hard to do my best. But it's obviously not a personal thing. Yes, maybe it's a female thing."
MEMO: (Finally we ask participants to think of anything they want to add)
TM7: "I've been thinking again about our organization and I've just realized that when any new male employee begins he immediately gets asked to join the football team and this goes across all levels and hierarchies. There is no similar thing for the females and so I suppose this must give them [male employees] an advantage. After all, they become 'all boys together', even with our directors and top managers. So they feel more relaxed with them than we do, I think"
AGAR, M. & McDONALD, J. (1995) 'Focus Groups and Ethnography', Human Organisation, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 78 - 86.
ALBRECHT, T. L., JOHNSON, G. M. & WALTHER, J. B. (1993) 'Understanding Communication Processes in Focus Groups' in D. L. Morgan (editor) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
ASBURY, J.-E. (1995) 'Overview of focus group research', Qualitative Health Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 414 - 420.
BALES, R. F. (1953) 'The Equilibrium Problem in Small Groups', in T. Parsons, R. F. Bales & E. A. Shils (editors) Working Papers in the Theory of Action. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
BASCH, C. E. (1987) 'Focus Group Interview: An Underutilised Research Technique for Improving Theory and Practice in Health Education', Health Education Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 411 - 448.
BRISTOL, T. & FERN, E. F. (1996) 'Exploring the Atmosphere Created in Focus Group Interviews: Comparing Consumers' Feelings Across Qualitative Techniques', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 185 - 195.
BRYMAN, A. & BURGESS, R. G. (1994) 'Reflections on Qualitative Data Analysis' in A. Bryman & R. G. Burgess (editors) Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge.
BURGESS, R. G. (1996) Studies in Qualitative Methodology: Volume 5: Computing & Qualitative Research. Hampton Hill: JAI Press.
CALDER, B. J. (1997) 'Focus Groups and the Nature of Qualitative Marketing Research', Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 4, August, pp. 353 - 364.
CAREY, M. A. & SMITH, M. W. (1990) 'Capturing the Group Effect in Focus Groups: A Special Concern in Analysis', Qualitative Health Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 123 - 127.
CAREY, M. A. (1995) 'Comment: Concerns in the Analysis of Focus Group Data', Qualitative Health Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 487 - 495.
CATTERALL, M. & MACLARAN, P. (1996) 'Computer Software for Qualitative Data Analysis: Using Metamorph 4', Proceedings of the Marketing Education Group Annual Conference, Glasgow.
CHANDLER, J. & OWEN, M. (1989) 'Genesis to Revelations: The Evolution of Qualitative Philosophy', Proceedings of the Market Research Society Conference, Brighton, pp. 295 - 305.
COFFEY, A., HOLBROOK, B. & ATKINSON, P. (1996) 'Qualitative Data Analysis: Technologies and Representations', Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no. 1., <http://www.socresonl ine.org.uk/socresonline/1/1/4.html>
COOPER, P. & BRANTHWAITE, A. (1977) 'Qualitative Technology: New Perspectives on Measurement and Meaning through Qualitative Research', Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Market Research Society, Brighton, pp. 79 - 92.
COOPER, P. (1989) 'Comparison between the UK and the US: The Qualitative Dimension', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 509 - 520.
CRABTREE, B. F., YANOSHIK, M. K., MILLER, W. L. & O'CONNOR, P. J. (1993) 'Selecting Individual or Group Interviews' in D. L. Morgan (editor) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
DEY, I. (1993) Qualitative Data Analysis: A User Friendly Guide for Social Scientists. London: Routledge.
FERN, E. F. (1982) 'The Use of Focus Groups for Idea Generation: The Effects of Group Size, Acquaintanceship and Moderator on Response Quantity and Quality', Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 26, February, pp. 1 - 13.
FLEURY, P. (1985) 'Market Research in France: The Empire of Qualitative Studies', European Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 80 - 81.
FREY, J. H. & FONTANA, A. (1993) 'The Group Interview in Social Research' in D. L. Morgan (editor) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
FREY, L. R. (1994) 'The Naturalistic Paradigm: Studying Small Groups in the Postmodern Era', Small Group Research, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 551 - 577.
GERSON, E. M. (1989) 'Data is Expensive, Models are Cheap', Qualitative Sociology, vol. 12, pp. 411 - 415.
GOLDMAN, A. E. & McDONALD, S. S. (1987) The Group Depth Interview: Principles & Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
GORDON, W. & LANGMAID, R. (1988) Qualitative Market Research: A Practitioner's & Buyer's Guide. London: Gower.
GRIGGS, S. (1987) 'Analysing Qualitative Data', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 15 - 34.
HESS, J. M. (1968) 'Group Interviewing' in R. L. King (editor) New Science of Planning. Chicago, American Marketing Association.
HESSE-BIBER, D., DUPUIS, P. & KINDER, T. S. (1991) 'HyperRESEARCH: A Computer Program for the Analysis of Qualitative Data with an emphasis on Hypothesis Testing and Multimedia Analysis', Qualitative Sociology, vol. 14, pp. 289 - 306.
HUBER, G. L. & GARCIA, C. M. (1991) 'Computer Assistance for Testing Hypotheses about Qualitative Data: The Software Package AQUAD 3.0', Qualitative Sociology, vol. 14, pp. 325 - 348.
JANIS, I. L. (1982) Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes (2nd edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
KELLE, U. (1995) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis, Theory Methods & Practice. London: Sage.
KITZINGER, J. (1994) 'The Methodology of Focus Groups: The Importance of Interaction Between Participants', Sociology of Health and Illness, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 103 - 121.
KNODEL, J. (1993) 'The Design and Analysis of Focus Group Studies: A Practical Approach' in D. L. Morgan (editor) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
LEE, R. M. & FIELDING, N. G. (1995) 'Users' Experiences of Qualitative Data Analysis Software' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer- Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
LEE, R. M. & FIELDING, N. (1996) 'Qualitative Data Analysis: Representations of a Technology: A Comment on Coffey, Holbrook and Atkinson', Sociological Research Online", vol. 1, no. 4, <http://www.socresonl ine.org.uk/socresonline/1/4/lf.html>
MAY, J. P. (1978) 'Qualitative Advertising Research', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 203 - 218.
McDANIEL, C. (1979) 'Focus Groups - Their Role in the Marketing Research Process', Acron Business & Economic Review, vol. 10, pp. 14 - 19.
McQUARRIE, E. F. & McINTYRE, S. H. (1987) 'What Focus Groups Can and Cannot Do: A Reply to Seymour', Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 4, pp. 55 - 60.
MENDES DE ALMEIDA, P. (1980) 'A Review of Group Discussion Methodology', European Researcher, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 114 - 120.
MERTON, R. K., FISKE, M. & KENDALL, P. (1956) The Focused Interview: A Manual of Problems & Procedures. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
MIRANDA, S. M. (1994) 'Avoidance of Groupthink: Meeting Management Using Group Support Systems', Small Group Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 105 - 136.
MOORE, K., BURBACK, R. & HEELER, R. (1995) 'Using Neural Nets to Analyse Qualitative Data', Marketing Research: A Magazine of Management & Applications, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 35 - 39.
MORGAN, D. L. (1988) Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
MORGAN, D. L. (1993) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
MORGAN, D. L. (1995) 'Why Things (Sometimes) Go Wrong in Focus Groups', Qualitative Health Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 516 - 523.
MUHR, T. (1991) 'ATLAS/ti: A Prototype for the Suport of Text Interpretation', Qualitative Sociology, vol. 14, pp. 349 - 371.
RICHARDS, T. J. & RICHARDS, L. (1991) 'The Transformation of Qualitative Method' in N. G. Fielding & R. M.Lee (editors) Using Computers in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
RICHARDS, T. J. & RICHARDS, L. (1994) 'Using Computers in Qualitative Research' in N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (editors) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
ROBSON, S. & FOSTER, A. (editors) (1989) Qualitative Research in Action. London: Edward Arnold.
ROBSON, S. & HEDGES, A. (1993) 'Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Findings: Report of the MRS Qualitative Interest Group', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 23 - 35.
SAMPSON, P. (1985) 'Qualitative Research in Europe: The State of the Art and the Art of the State', ESOMAR Congress, Wiesbaden, pp. 67 - 99.
SCHINDLER, R. M. (1992) 'The Real Lesson of New Coke: The Value of Focus Groups for Predicting the Effects of Social Influence', Marketing Research: A Magazine of Management & Applications, December, pp. 22 - 27.
SCHLACKMAN, W. (1984) 'A Discussion of the use of Sensitivity Panels in Market Research', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 26, no.3, pp. 191 - 208.
SCHLACKMAN, B. (1989) 'An Historical Perspective' in S. Robson & A. Foster (editors) Qualitative Research in Action. London: Edward Arnold.
SEIDAL, J. V. & CLARK, J. A. (1984) 'The Ethnograph: A Computer Program for the Analysis of Qualitative Data', Qualitative Sociology, vol. 7, no. 1/2, pp. 110 - 125.
STEWART, D. W. & SHAMDASANI, P. N. (1990) Focus Groups: Theory & Practice. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
SYKES, W. & BRANDON, K. (1990) 'Qualitative Research Models - Towards a Typology', Proceedings of the Market Research Society Conference, Brighton, pp. 165 - 176.
TEMPLETON, J. F. (1994) Focus Groups: A Guide for Marketing and Advertising Professionals. Chicago: Probus.
VALENTINE, V. & EVANS, M. (1993) 'The Dark Side of the Onion: Rethinking the Meanings of "Rational" and "Emotional" Responses', Journal of the Market Research Society, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 125 - 144.
VALENTINE, V. (1995) 'Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research', ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6 - 8th December, pp. 25 - 47.
WEITZMAN, E. A. & MILES, M. B. (1995) Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis: A Software Sourcebook. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
WILSON, F. M. (1995) Organizational Behaviour and Gender. London: McGraw-Hill.