(2002) 'Crossing Borders? Sociology, Globalization and
Sociological Research Online, vol. 7, no. 3, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/7/3/ray.html>
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Received: 30/9/2002 Accepted: 30/9/2002 Published: 22/10/2002
|Idealized global markets||Embedded local markets|
|Finance/service driven||Sunken capital and high exit costs|
|Auction market prices||Customer market prices|
|Spontaneous order||Visible construction of relationships|
|High risk||Personal networks and obligations reduce risk|
|Abstract rules||Situationally specific rules|
|Institutionalized (systemic) trust||Low impersonal trust and high informal regulation|
|Expansion of credit||Credit limited and tied to obligations|
|Figure 2. Net annual flows of international migration 1975-98|
2 The polarization of the debate into 'radicals' and 'skeptics' might be useful for teaching purposes, to guide students through a maze of conflicting positions, but it is not particularly illuminating in academic discussion.
3 In particular, critics of the decline of the nation state argument regard this as an obstacle to developing an egalitarian and welfare based socialist strategy of (notably Hirst and Thompson 1996). The hollowing out and the emergence of the regulatory state is not necessarily equivalent to the implosion of nation states that retain crucial and arguably increasing powers over the management of space and mobility.
4 It is worth mentioning too that many mid-century theories explicitly did not equate the social with national societies, notably symbolic interactionism, in which larger structures and entities are secondary to the dynamics of situated interactions. Likewise the earlier Chicago tradition, including people like Thomas and Znaniecki developed nuanced and multi- dimensional concepts of the social.
5Language and culture embody a stock of knowledge - the stored interpretative work of preceding generations - that renders every new situation familiar, in that understanding takes place against the background of culturally ingrained pre-understandings. This 'pre- reflective background consensus' can become an object of reflection only piecemeal, because we cannot suspend judgement on everything at once (Habermas, 1984:123).
6The main centres were Bradford (April and July), Burnley (June) and Oldham (May). There were a total of 1500 violent disorders, 476 people injured and around £10 million worth of damage done (Home Office 2002).
7This is includes fines, possible imprisonment and confiscation of carriers' vehicles, which increases the risks and potential costs of trafficking and makes traffickers increasingly ruthless.
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