Yaojun Li, Mike
Savage, Gindo Tampubolon, Alan Warde and Mark
Tomlinson (2002) 'Dynamics Of Social Capital: Trends
And Turnover In Associational Membership In England And
Sociological Research Online, vol. 7, no. 3, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/7/3/li.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 15/10/2002 Accepted: 15/10/2002 Published:
|Membership in organizations (%)|
|Working men's or Social Clubs||27.6||21.1||17.9||7.6||7.0|
|Church or religious groups||9.5||8.1||7.0||12.4||11.1|
|Voluntary services groups||-||3.1||2.5||5.3||4.5|
|Other community/civic groups||-||2.9||1.7||3.3||1.9|
|Mean number of organizations|
|All listed organisations||1.44||1.18||1.17||0.91||0.96|
|Seven common organisations||1.18||0.95||0.86||0.65||0.66|
|Five common organisations||0.51||0.47||0.45||0.41||0.43|
|Members who are active (%)||Persons active but not member (%)|
|Other civic group||87||0.3|
I&II: The service class: professionals, administrators and managers;
III: Routine-non-manual employees;
IV: Petty bourgeoisie: self-employed workers with or without employees;
V: Foremen and manual supervisors; lower-grade technicians;
VI: Skilled manual working class;
VII: Semi/unskilled manual workers, including agricultural labourers.
log[?/(1-?)] = logit(?) = ? + ?Xwhere ?X is a vector for b1x1 + … + bnxn with b1 … bn being the coefficients for the explanatory variables: class, education, mobility trajectories and friendship homogamy.
|Foremen and technicians||.164||.068||-.317||.084||.462|
|Up into service||.319||.070||-.365||-.271||-.155|
|Down from service||-.044||- .105||-.027||.377*||.387*|
|Up into service||-.054||- .391||-.211||-.357||- .719*|
|Down from service||.157||.527||.114||.028||.343|
|Having SV friends||.184||.317*||-.071||.375**||.309*|
|Year and membership||Frequency||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|Member throughout||Member in at least one year||Maximum members in any year|
The data used in this publication were made available through the ESRC Data Archive. The data were originally collected by the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-social Change at the University of Essex (now incorporated within the Institute for Social and Economic Research). Neither the original collectors of the data nor the Archive bear any responsibility for the analyses or interpretations presented here.
2 For full details of the questions used in the study, see the schedules held by the ESRC Data Archive at the University of Essex; www.data-archive.ac.uk. The wording of the relevant questions here is as in OMS, Q38; BHPS, Wave 2, V13, and Wave 9, V19.
3 We have carefully consulted the BHPS User Manuals. Particular guidance is obtained from Section V, Volume A, for weighting purposes. We would like to thank Dr Brendan Halpin for his kind help in this and in deriving the first-job class.
4 The introduction of a specific question on professional association membership almost certainly made a major difference. Some of the memberships described as other in 1992 were surely of professional associations, but their number was almost certainly under-recorded in 1992. The decline in mean male membership probably decreased by approximately 0.06 points.
5 It should be noted that Warde et al's (2003) findings relate to all adults over 16 years of age.
6 We are aware of the debates on individual, conventional and dominance approaches to the family class allocation (Heath and Britten 1984; Goldthorpe and Payne 1986; Goldthorpe 1987; Erikson 1984; Sorensen 1994) but the positions we adopt are necessitated by the need for strict compatibility between the OMS and the BHPS.
7 It is to be noted that, in the OMS, such a person is termed 'most frequent spare-time associate' rather than 'friend'. To be compatible with the terminology in the BHPS and with the general practice in previous research using the OMS (Heath 1981; Mitchell and Critchley 1985), he/she is called 'friend' in the present paper. In addition, for Wave 2, we use associational involvement and all the socio-cultural variables including friendship homogamy in the wave. For Wave 9, we use associational involvement and socio-cultural variables in the wave and, since the friendship data are in Wave 8, we have matched the data on best friend's class onto Wave 9.
8 Respondents in different class positions varied in the scope of friendship ties but not in the class distribution of their friends. In the OMS, respondents were asked to name up to three 'most frequent spare-time associates'. While 29% of the service-class men reported having 3 friends, the figures for the intermediate and the working classes were 23% and 19% respectively. However, with regard to different friends' class positions, there were scarcely noticeable differences. The proportions of friends in service-class positions by respondents in service, intermediate and working classes were 57%, 24% and 11% for the first-mentioned friend; 58%, 24% and 11% for the second-mentioned friend; and 58%, 26% and 15% for the third-mentioned friend. Given this, we feel well justified in using the class position of the first-mentioned friend in the OMS in conjunction with the class of the 'best' friend in the BHPS.
9 We are grateful to Professor Anthony Heath for suggestions over the algorithms used in constructing the educational variable in the OMS.
10 We are interested in estimating the main and the 'mobility' effects of class. For this purpose, we have designed the class variables as follows (taking intergenerational mobility as an example):
A: Intergenerationally stable service class
B: Routine non-manual
C: Petty bourgeoisie
D: Foremen and technicians
E: Skilled manual workers
F: Semi/unskilled manual workers
G: Intergenerationally long-range downwardly mobile
H: Intergenerationally long-range upwardly mobile
The same is done for the first- and current- job categorization. The advantage of this is that it clearly highlights the mobility effects. Strictly speaking, we ought to refer to classes as the inter-/intra-generationally stable service class, the inter-/intra-generationally upward or downward mobile, etc. However, for the ease of expression, we simply refer to them as the service class, the routine non- manual etc.
11 We could use 'parent class' and 'first- job class' as main-effects variables and add interaction terms between current and parent class, and between current and first-job class. The results would be similar but the presentation and interpretation much less straightforward.
12 In this instance a class position is allocated to all respondents. However, when the exercise was repeated to include only those currently in employment, the pattern was more or less the same.
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