and Jane Elliott (2001) 'The Timing of Family Formation
in Britain and Spain'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 6, no. 2, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/6/2/holdsworth.html>
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Received: 2001/3/15 Accepted: 2001/8/15 Published: 2001/8/31
Life Course Event
|% Cohort Ever Left Home||82.5||87.5||94.6||97.4|
|Mediana Age of Leaving Home||26.0||23.7||21.7||20.0|
|% Cohort with at least one Partnership||81.9||87.8||88.6||93.4|
|Median Age at First Partnership||26.5||23.9||24.1||21.8|
|% Cohort with at least one child||71.2||80.3||66.4||76.3|
|Median Age at Birth of First Child||29.4||26.5||29.8||27.0|
|% Cohort with One Child Onlyb||43.8||34.0||27.8||21.7|
|% Cohort in Childless Partnershipsc||13.1||9.6||25.4||19.4|
a Median age is the age at which half of the cohort have either left
home, formed a partnership or had a child.
b Percentage expressed for those with children only.
c Percentage expressed for those in partnerships only.
Base: All cohort members living with parents at age 14. All analyses exclude British respondents whose first partnership was a cohabiting partnership of less than one year.
Source: Spain - 1991 Sociodemographic Survey ; Britain - National Child Development Survey.
|Survival Time from Age 14 to Leaving
Base: All Respondents at Home at Age 14
|N of Cases||7409||7173||4902||5273|
|N of cases censored||1294||900||267||137|
|Survival Time from Leaving Home to First
Base: All Respondents who have Left Home
|N of Casesa||5803||5917||4286||4751|
|N of cases censored||303||305||320||233|
|Survival Time from First Partnership to First
Base: All Respondents who Form a Partnership
|N of Casesb||5909||6145||4152||4574|
|N of cases censoredc||810||632||1307||1238|
a Excludes those who form a partnership prior to leaving home.
b Includes those who form a partnership but do not leave home.
c Includes those whose first partnerships end before birth of first child.
All analyses exclude British respondents whose first partnership was a cohabiting partnership of less than one year.
Source: Spain -1991 Sociodemographic Survey ; Britain - National Child Development Survey.
It should be noted that as events are recorded in years we cannot distinguish premarital conceptions in our analysis.
- Time in Partnership - this variable gives the survival time for the model. As the probability of having a child does not linearly increase with time in partnership, both time and time squared are fitted in the final model.
- Age at Start of Partnership - a categorical variable divided into the following age groups:16-18, 19-21, 22-24, 25-27, 28-30.
- Dummy variable to capture year entered partnership. This variable is included in addition to time in partnership, as year started (year zero of the partnership) does not necessarily equate to a full year's duration.
Table 3: Parameter Estimates for Model of First Births within First Partnerships.
Base: All women in first partnerships; Numbers refer to parameter estimates, standard errors in parentheses.
|Variable||Spain ß||Britain ß|
Age Start Partnership: Base category 19- 21
|16-18||0.43 (0.10)||0.87 (0.12)|
|22-24||-0.46 (0.17)||-0.44 (0.12)|
|25-27||-0.72 (0.10)||-0.49 (0.19)|
|28-30||-0.85 (0.17)||-0.56 (0.33)|
|31-33||0.31 (0.24)||-0.14 (0.52)|
|Time in partnership (years)||-0.13 (0.04)||0.28 (0.04)|
|Time in partnership squared||-0.01 (0.00)||-0.03 (0.00)|
First year of partnership
|-1.76 (0.07)||-0.51 (0.09)|
Mother's age at first birth (time varying)
Higher Qualification: Base no high qual
|-0.43 (0.05)||-0.57 (0.07)|
|16-18*time||-0.18 (0.07)||-0.42 (0.06)|
|22-24*time||0.21 (0.05)||0.28 (0.06)|
|25-27*time||0.43 (0.07)||0.49 (0.13)|
|28-30*time||0.57 (0.16)||1.29 (0.33)|
|31-33*time||-1.06 (0.39)||0.95 (1.11)|
Age start partnership* time in partnership sqda
|16-18*time2||0.02 (0.00)||0.02 (0.01)|
|22-24*time2||0.02 (0.01)||-0.03 (0.01)|
|25-27*time2||-0.05 (0.01)||-0.07 (0.02)|
|28-30*time2||-0.10 (0.03)||-0.33 (0.08)|
|31-33*time2||0.22 (0.12)||-0.57 (0.54)|
|-0.21 (0.07)||-2.00 (0.08)|
Life Course Trajectories
22 One drawback of using these datasets for this technique is that the Spanish data are only available in completed years, rather than completed months, and the time periods for some of the transitions considered are, on average, less than one year hence we have a few zero estimates.
3The interaction terms are fitted to investigate whether the effect of time in partnership is constant for all partnership cohorts. Significant interaction terms indicate that the impact of time in partnership on the odds of having a first birth varies for different partnership cohorts.
4Data collected on employment history in the SDS were not detailed enough to provide any insight on the relationship between maternity and employment.
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