(2001) 'The Plausibility of Class Cultural Explanations: An
Analysis of Social Homogeneity using Swedish Data from the
Sociological Research Online, vol. 5, no. 4, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/4/bihagen.html>
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Received: 18/9/2000 Accepted: 14/12/2001 Published: 28/2/2001
H1, Groups with a low degree of social circulation tend to develop and maintain group-specific norms and values, i.e., cultures.
H2, People stay within their class to a large degree, i.e., they are inter-generationally immobile.
H3, Therefore, different classes tend to develop and maintain different cultures with related ways of behaving.
|EGP title and code||SEI title and code||'Typical' occupations (SEI)|
|Service I (I)||Service I- managers (57)||Managing director|
|Service I-other (56; 60)||Physician, journalist|
|Service II (II)||Service II (46)||Nurse, police sergeant|
|Routine non-manual higher (IIIa)||Lower non-manual I (36)||Foremen, stationmaster|
|Routine non-manual lower (IIIb)||Lower non-manual II (33)||Office employees in general|
|Supervisors of manual workers (V)||Lower non-manual I (36)||Supervisors|
|Skilled workers (VI)||Skilled workers; goods (21)||Metal worker; skilled|
|Skilled workers; service (22)||Assistant nurse, hairdresser|
|Semi/unskilled workers (VIIa)||Non- skilled Workers; goods (11)||Metal worker; non-skilled|
|Non-skilled Workers; service (12)||Nurse's assistant, shop-assistants (generally)|
|Agricultural workers (VIIb)||Skilled or non-skilled workers|
(12 or 22)
|The title reveals the kind of jobs|
|Small proprietors with employees (IVa)||Self-employed with employees (76)||The title reveals the kind of jobs|
|Small proprietors without employees (IVb)||Self-employed no employees (78) Except independent professionals (SEI code 60)||The title reveals the kind of jobs|
|Farmers (IVc)||Excluded from these analyses.||The title reveals the kind of jobs|
a, b, c & d are the four cells of a 2*2 sub-table of the larger table.
a = the cell that corresponds to value 1 of both variables.
d = the cell that corresponds to value 0 of both variables.
b & c = the two cells that correspond to values 1 and 0.
Comments: "Service I-other" is labelled "service I" and "service I-managers" is labelled "managers". The boldness of the lines represents the 'true' distances, i.e., as measured by Yules Y, while the actual distances on the map are the MDS solutions of adapting the 'true' distances to a two dimensional map. Only the smallest true distances are shown as lines. The size of the circles corresponds to the size of the classes.
|Having at least one parent from service I||Having at least one parent from the working class||Having cross-class origins: working class and service I|
|Non-skilled workers - goods||5||67||1|
|Skilled workers -goods||5||68||1|
|Non-skilled workers - service||6||62||1|
|Skilled workers -service||8||58||1|
|Lower non-manuals II||10||52||2|
|Lower non-manuals I||11||52||1|
|Service I - other||25||29||1|
|Service I - managers||24||34||0|
|- without employees||7||42||0|
|- with employees||8||39||1|
|Married to a spouse in service I||Married to a spouse in the working class||Married to a spouse in service I||Married to a spouse in the working class|
|Non-skilled workers - goods||5||66||2||66|
|Skilled workers -goods||6||60||3||59|
|Non-skilled workers - service||8||55||4||60|
|Skilled workers -service||9||51||5||50|
|Lower non-manuals II||14||39||5||47|
|Lower non-manuals I||21||30||7||39|
|Service I - other||55||10||30||15|
|Service I - managers||51||7||27||12|
|- without employees||19||21||10||32|
|- with employees||15||7||7||28|
|1.Origin in service I||2. Origin in working classes||3. Spouse in service I||4. Spouse in working classes|
|Model A||Model B||Model A||Model B||Model A||Model B||Model A||Model B|
|Medical sector||1.22***||-||-.61 ns||-||.87**||-||-2.13*||-|
(Constant: Lt 3 years university)
|At least 3 years at university||-||1.25***||-||-.84***||-||1.11***||-||-.96***|
|Stockholm area||.77***||.74***||-1.02 ***||-.93***||.49***||.38**||-.70**||- .58*|
|Sex (Constant: Male)|
|Female||.17 ns||-.05 ns||-.45**||-.13 ns||1.26***||1.04***||-.92***||-.61**|
2Goldthorpe (1987: 330-331) distinguished between class formation in a demographic sense and as a socio-political process. In this paper, class formation is used in the first sense and this also resembles Giddens's (1981: 107-110) use of the concept class structuration.
3These tendencies are equivalent to the concept of relative mobility, i.e. the statistical association between class of origin and class of destination, whereas the concept of social homogeneity used here is equivalent to absolute mobility, i.e. marginal- distribution-sensitive mobility (Breen & Rottman 1995; Hout 1983).
4This could be described consistently in terms of OCG instead of class. However, these aggregates are commonly described in terms of class and class schemas, and therefore I use these terms in this section. Throughout the paper I will also use the combined labels with class for the different OCGs as shown in Diagram 1 (See also the section below).
5Determining the class positions of the non-employed is problematic within class analysis (Breen & Rottman 1995: 92).
6The original data set contains 23,692 responses. When farmers (n=189, see more below), unemployed and other non-working categories are excluded (i.e. self- employed and employees are included), the data set contains 13,622. A further exclusion, which is used in the marriage analysis, excludes all but cohabiting/married couples where both work, and the data set is then based on 7,971 responses. In some analyses the n is smaller due to non-responses.
7In Sweden, it is common for unmarried couples to live together as if they were married. Thus, cohabiting people are treated as married in the present analyses.
8It could be argued that the EGP schema was not intended to locate social classes (Erikson & Goldthorpe 1992a), and thus, these analyses might not be able to indicate the position of foremen (C.f. Scott 1996a, 1996b). Moreover, 'non-manuals I' is not only comprised of foremen.
9The idea was to have independent professionals as a separate group as well, but there were too few women in this group for the analyses. Initial analyses indicated that the independent professionals were more similar to service I than to managers. Both independent professionals and managers are part of service I according to EGP.
10These groups correspond to the following NYK (Nordisk Yrkes Klassificering) codes: (1): codes 00001-02999); (2) codes 03000-03999); (3) codes 05000-05999; (4) codes 10000-10999); (5) codes 20000-29999; (6) codes 30000-39999.
11As an example, the distance between Lower non-manuals I and Managers is calculated from the following sub-table made from the complete marriage table (Click here for complete Cross-tabulation)
|Low. Non-m. 1||Managers|
|Women's class||Low. Non-m. 1||(a) 108||(b) 48|
|Managers||(c) 5||(d) 12|
12Olle Persson constructed this soft-ware (email@example.com), which covers considerably more than the mapping techniques used here. For more information see <http://www.umu.se/inforsk>.
13I separated these slightly in order to enhance readability; this is the only manipulation of this kind made on the map. Thus, these classes are even closer than the map reveals.
14Some of these cross-tabulations do have an expected frequency below 5 in some cells, which makes this test troublesome in certain respects. However, this concerns OCGs that are far apart on the map, and especially between managers and some distant OCGs. Thus, this problem does not appear to be of great importance.
15Actually, the number of respondents from cross-class origins is probably slightly underestimated, due to the handling of non-responses. Only respondents for whom no occupation is reported for either of the parents are excluded from the analysis and, thus, respondents who actually have cross-class origins but missing information for one parent are not included in the columns for cross-class origins. From the marriage table (Click here for Cross Tabulation) we see that around 4 percentages of all marriages have this cross-class combination. However, since inter-marriage is increasing over time (Bihagen & Halleröd 2000) and since many adults have grown up in families where the mother was a housewife (Axelsson 1992), we expect to find a smaller degree of this cross-class experience when asking about class origin than when asking about the respondent's own marriage combination.
16It would be more convincing to show the degree of immobility and in-marriage within the subgroups. However, since the subgroups are very tentative - i.e. I do not know if the right social barriers have been constructed - it is enough to show that they are more frequently immobile and in-marry within the OCG of service I.
17The only significant interaction effect was between having a long university education and being a woman in the regression with having at least one parent in service I class as dependent variable. The implication of this interaction effect is that there are no gender differences among those with a higher education.
18For the regressions in Table 3 the log-odds (L) were first calculated as: L =a0 (constant) + b1 'Medical sector (alternatively 'At least 3 years at university')' + b2 'Stockholm area' + b3 'Female'. Then the proportions were estimated as: Proportion =exp(L)/(1+exp(L)).
19The general trend of stability, with the exception of Sweden, appears to be the case for relative patterns of inter-generational mobility as well (Erikson & Goldthorpe 1992a).
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