Brigham (2000) 'Land Reform: A Foundation For Industrial
Growth In Developing Countries?'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 5, no. 3, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/3/brigham.html>
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Received: 21/8/2000 Accepted: 23/11/2000 Published: 31/11/2000
Figure 1: Agricultural production trends in selected countries where the operational size has been reduced (Indices, 1979-1981=100)
Figure 2: Agricultural production trends in selected countries where estates were turned into cooperatives (Indices, 1979-81)
b) El Salvador
c) The Dominican Republic
Source: FAO (1995)
Note: Where the "per 1000 ha." trend line is not visible, it lies under the total trend line.
Table 1: Surplus of grain available for rural areas in China, 1954/55-1956/57. (Millions of tons)
|Total grain output||169,5||183,9||192,7|
|Total collections and purchases||53,9||52,0||49,9|
|Re-sales to rural areas||24,7||20,2||24,5|
|Available for urban consumption, exports and government stockpiles||29,2||31,8||25,2|
2The sample in my analysis is constrained by the availability of time series data. Data on aggregate agricultural production that are comparable over time is only available from 1961. This is why important reforms such as the ones implemented in Mexico, Bolivia, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Kenya are left out of the analysis (as well as the Ethiopian case where there is almost a total lack of data).
3A typology of reforms into these two distinct groups is somewhat problematic, because most reforms are a mix of the two, and because the nature of the reforms often change over time. I have classified the countries according to the most common ownership structure in the reformed sector in the first decade after the reform. The sources for my classification are Bruce (1998) for Zimbabwe, El-Salvador, Peru, and Chile, Adams (1995) for the Philippines, Dorner (1992: 40- 41) and Stanfield (1989: 334) for the Dominican Republic, and Thiesenhusen (1995: 87-114 and 128-129) for Chile and Nicaragua.
4To be defined as a land reform, the ownership to a substantial part of the agricultural land in a country must have been redistributed in either of these two ways as a result of political intervention (as opposed to by the "invisible hand" or by manipulation of taxes or factor prices. The source as to whether reforms have been substantial is Thiesenhusen (1989: 10), Adams (1995) and Bruce (1998: 41). The year of implementation of the reforms refers to the year where the reform law was passed. For the analytical purpose of studying the effects of the reforms, it may, artificial to use this year as break-off point, as the implementation of the reforms may stretch out in time. We will keep this in mind when studying the trends.
5In order to control for these variables I will need to compare the productivity trends from the part of the country's agricultural land that has been "reformed", with the trends in the rest of the agricultural sector. I am now in the process of collecting such data, and the results of my analysis will be presented in my PhD thesis on the effect of land reform on food security in developing countries.
6Source: FAO 1995 (Time series data for "The State of Food and Agriculture". 1995. FAO, Rome)
7The reform process started earlier, but did not redistribute enough land to be considered significant until 1967.
8The question of optimum farm size is an important issue, not only in relation to weather, but also with regard to the type of farming (extensive vs. intensive, dry land vs. irrigation, etc) as well as input and market price fluctuations.
9For simplicity, I will refer to these two types of consumption combined when I use the terms "on farm consumption" and "consumption of agricultural products in the agricultural sector".
10The urban sector does not necessarily coincide with the industrial sector, because there may be industrial activity in rural areas too. The example may non the less be illuminating to the discussion.
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