and Essy Letsoalo (2000) 'Rethinking Land Reform in
South Africa: An Alternative Approach to Environmental
Sociological Research Online, vol. 5, no. 2, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/2/geisler.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 2/8/2000 Accepted: 30/8/2000 Published: 6/9/2000
|Ranked||Countries||1999 UNDP Poverty Index||Ranked||Countries||1997 Percentage of Protected Land|
|10||Congo, Dem. Rep||0.5050||10||Zambia||8.60|
|11||Chad||0.4990||11||Central African Rep||8.20|
|27||Congo, Dem. Rep||0.3620||27||Congo, Dem.Rep||4.50|
|28||Burkina Faso||0.3300||28||Congo, Rep||4.50|
|42||Central African Rep||0.0000||42||Marroco||0.70|
Sources: UNDP (1999: 147-150) WRI/UNDP/UNEP ( 1998: 244: 289; 298 )
2 The data shown in Table 1, derive from the amount of protected areas in IUCN Categories 1-V. For detail and justification, see Geisler and de Souza (2000).
3 Bantustans have ended but, in the absence of major land redistribution in South Africa, they remain the de facto residential clusters of Blacks who have not migrated to urban areas. Parks and game reserves on former bantustans are largely in tact.
4Within this variations are numerous problems and imperfections, such as cooptation by elites (Sobhan, 1994), cultural insensitivity (Hirtz, 1998), and inattention to the challenges of more comprehensive agrarian reform.
5Despite important difference in scope, substance, and purpose, land reform and agrarian reform will be hereafter used interchangably.
6 Lease and rental fees as compensation to owners has many desireable properties, including fairness (income, reserved rights, continuing equity). It is being tried in the first U.S. national park in the sourthern hemisphere (American Samoa) and is discussed at greater length in Ferrarro and Kramer (1997).
7 The Riemvasmaak base in the Northern Cape, though resolved as a restitution case, is a good example; the Maleoskot base in Mpumalanga Province is potentially another.
8What is "fair" is of course culturally defined and may or may not be the same as "equal."
ANAI. 1988 "Campesino Land Titling and Wildlife Preservation." Project No. 3506. Report to the World Wildlife Fund. Puerto Limón: Costa Rica.
ANC. 1991. Agricultural Policy. African National Congress. Johennesberg: Westro Reproductions.
AVERY, D.R. and AVER, A. 1996. "Farming to Sustain the Environment." Hudson Briefing Paper No. 190 (May). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute.
BINSWANGER, H.P. and DEINIGER, K. 1993. "South African land policy: The legacy of history and current options," World Development 21:1451-76.
BRUCE, J. 1999. Legal Bases for the management of Forest Resources as Common Property. FAO Community Forestry Note 14, in conjunction with University of Wisconsin Land Tenure Center. Rome: FAO.
CAMPBELL, A. 1998. "Fomenting Synergy: Experiences with Facilitating Landcare in Australia." Pp. 232-49 in N.G.Roling and M.A.E. Wagemakers (eds.). Facilitating Sustainable Agriculture. London: Cambridge Univ. Press.
CARRUTHERS, J 1995. The Kruger National Park. Pietermaritzburg: U. of Natal Press.
CARRUTHERS, J. 1989. "Creating a National Park, 1910 to 1926," Journal of Southern African Studies 15 (2):188-216.
COOK, C.C. 1994. "Environment and Settlement Issues in Africa: Towards a Policy Agenda." Pp. 193-198 in C.C. Cook (ed.), Involuntary Resettlement in Africa. Africa Technical Department Sries: Technical paper #227. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
DORSEY, M. K. 1999. "Toward an Idea of International Environmental Justice." Pp. 99- 101, Human Development Indicator 1999, UNDP. New York: Oxford Univ. Press
DURNING, A. B. 1990. "Aparteid's Environmental Toll." Worldwatch Paper 95. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
ELLIS, S. 1994. "Of elephants and men: Politics and nature conservation in South Africa." J. of Southern African Studies 20: 53-69.
FIG, D. 1991. "Flowers in the Desert." Pp. 112-128 in J.Cock and E. Koch (eds.) Going Green. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
FORSTER, N.R. 1992. "Protecting fragile lands: new reasons to tackle problems." World Development, 20:571-58.
FROST, J. 1996. "Land Reform and Soil Conservation in the Soviet Union." Paper prepared for graduate seminar 743, Land Reform Old and New.: Spring Semester. Ithaca: Cornell University.
GEISLER, C. 1993. "Adapting Social Impact Assessment to Protected Area Development." Pp. 25-43 in S.H. Davis (ed.), The Social Challenge of Biodiversity Conservation. Global Environmental Facility Working Paper No. 1. Washington, D.C.: the World Bank.
GEISLER, C. 2000b. "Adapting Land Reform to Protected Area Management in the Dominican Republic." Chapter forthcoming in L. Buck, C. Geisler, J.Schelhas and E. Wollenberg (eds), Biological Diversity: Balancing Interests through Adaptive Collaborative Management. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
GEISLER, C. and SILBERLING, L. 1992. "Extractive Reserves: Appalachia and Amazonia Compared, Agriculture and Human Values IX: 58-80.
GEISLER, C. and DE SOUZA, R. 2000. "From refuge to refugee: the African Case." Journal of Public Administration and Development (forthcoming).
HAYAMI, Y., QUISUMBING, M.A.R. and ADRIANO, L.S. 1991. Toward an Alternative Land Reform Paradigm. Manila: Ateneo de Manila Univ. Press.
HUGO, G. 1995. Environmental Concerns and International Migration. Paper prepared for International Conference on Ethics, Migration and Global Stewardship, Center for Migration Studies, Georgetown University and Center for Advanced Studies of Ethics, Washington, DC. (13-15 September).
INAMDAR, A, DE JODE, H, Lindsay, K, COBB, S. 1999. "Capitalizing on nature: Protected Area Management," Science 283:1856-57.
JOSEPH, E. and PARRIS,D. 2000. Visions of Change. Johannesburg: Branko Brkic. KOCH, E. 1991. "Rainbow Alliances." Pp. 20-32 in J. Cock and E. Koch (eds.), Going Green.
LETSOALO, E. 1987. Land Reform in South Africa: A Black Perspective, Johannesburg: Skotaville Publishers.
LETSOALO, 1994. Notes from seminar presentation at Yale University's Southern African Research Program summarized in The Land Issue in South Africa: Making Informed Decisions. Available from the author.
LIPTON,DE KLERK, M.M and LIPTON,N. 1996. Land, Labour, and Livelihoods in Rural South Africa (Vol. 1). Johannesburg: Indicator Press.
LUBCHENCO, J. 1998. "Entering the century of the environment: A new social contract for science." Science 279:491-97.
MACHLIS, G. and TICHNELL,D. 1985. The State of the World's Parks: An International Assessment for Resource Management, Policy and Research. Boulder: Westview.
MSIMANG, M. 2000. "Prologue." Pp.11-13 in E. Joseph and D. Parris (eds.),Visions of Change. Development Communications Corporation in association with South African National Parks. Johannesburg.
PLATZKY, L. and WALKER, C. 1985. The Surplus People: Forced Removals in South Africa. Johannesburg: Raven.
RANGER, T. 1989. "Whose heritage? The case of the Matoblo National Park," Journal of Southern African Studies 15:217-249.
RODRIGUEZ, S. 1991. Agrarian and Conservation Policies in the natural protected Areas of Costa Rica: Conservation or Contraction? Paper presented at the XVII Latin American Studies Ass. Conference. Washington, D.C. (April 4-6).
SOBHAN, R. 1994. Agrarian Reform and Social Transformation. Boulder: Westview.
THEISENHUSEN, W. 1991. "Implications of the rural land tenure system for the environmental debate: Three scenarios," The Journal of Developing Areas, 26:1- 24.
TUMA, E. 1965. Twenty-Six Centuries of Agrarian Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press.
WACHTER, D. 1992. Farmland Degradation in Developing Countries: The Role of Property Rights and an Assessment of Land Titling. Madison: Land Tenure Center Paper 145.
WRI/UNDP/UNEP. 1998. World Resources 1997-98. NY: Oxford Univ. Press.