Mark Harvey (1999)
'Cultivation and Comprehension: How Genetic Modification Irreversibly
Alters the Human Engagement with Nature'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 4, no. 3, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/4/3/harvey.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 15/9/1999 Accepted: 22/9/1999 Published: 30/9/1999
2This article covers a small area of a much larger research project on the cultural and political economy of the tomato undertaken with my colleagues Huw Beynon and Steve Quilley (Harvey, Beynon, Quilley, forthcoming), at the ESRC Centre for Research in Innovation and Competition at the University of Manchester and UMIST. However, I take full responsibility for the views on genetic modification expressed here. The research on genetic modification is based on extensive interviewing of the scientists, the biotechnology companies, the tomato growers, the supermarkets and seed-manufacturers, involved in genetic modification, as well as with The Soil Association, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, Genewatch, and those opposed to it in the UK.
3Thus, Tesco's favoured eco-friendly tomato, a special hybrid, is called 'Nature's Choice', whilst Sainsbury advertises that 'if you're looking for a tomato that's naturally perfect, pick one up at Sainsbury's.' July 1999.
4It could be argued that the tomato is rather a special case of genetic modification, quite different from broad acre crops such as rape, soya, cotton, sugar beet. However, much tomato production is open-field; there are wild species closely related to it; much open field production is under an agro-chemical production regime; but above all it raises many of the same issues in principal as other GM crops. Greenpeace clearly thought so at one stage in preparing an unpublished report which viewed tomatoes as the Trojan horse of genetic modification (Mayer and Rutovitz, 1996).
5For a comparison with how pharmaceutical usages of recombinant DNA technology were also shaped by the markets in which their end-products became established see Green (1991).
BONANNO, A., Busch, L., Friedland, W.H., Gouveia, L. And Mingione, E. 1994. From Columbus to Conagra. The Globalisation of Agriculture and Food. University Press of Kansas.
BUSCH, L., Lacy, W.B., Burkhardt, J., And Lacy, L.R. 1991. Plants, Power and Profit. Social, Economic and Ethical Consequences of the new Biotechnologies. Blackwell, Oxford
CLARKE, A. and Fujimara, J.H. The Right Tools for the Job. At work in the twentieth century life sciences. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
FINE, B. Heasman, M., and Wright, J. 1996. Consumption in the Age of Affluence: the World of Food. Routledge. London.
FINE, B. Heasman, M., and Wright, J. 1998. 'What we eat and why: social norms and systems of provision.' In Murcott, A. ed.
FRIEDLAND, W.H. and Barton, A. 1976. 'The harvesting machine saved tomatoes for California.' Society, 13, 34-42.
FRIEDLAND, W.H. and Barton, A. 1975 'De-Stalking the Wily Tomato: A case study in social consequences in California Agricultural Research.' Research Monograph, 15. University of California, Davis.
FRIEDLAND, W.H. 1994. The New Globalisation: the case of fresh produce. In Bonanno, A.,et al., Eds.
GREEN, K. 1991 'Shaping Technologies and Shaping Markets: Creating Demand for Biotechnology.' Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 3,1, 57-76.
GRIERSON, D. 1996 'Silent Genes and everlasting fruits and vegetables', Nature Biotechnology, 14, 828-9.
HARVEY, M. 1999. 'Genetic modification as a bio-socio-economic process: one case of canned tomato purée' ESRC Centre for Research in Innovation and Competition. Working Paper (forthcoming).
HARVEY, M., Beynon, H. And Quilley, S. (forthcoming). The Human Tomato.
HOUSE OF LORDS, 1998. 'EC Regulation of Genetic Modification in Agriculture.' Select Committee on European Communities. Second Report, 15 December.
KIMMELMAN, B.A. 1992 Organisms and Interests in Scientific Research. R.A. Emerson's claims for the unique contributions of agricultural genetics. In Clarke, A. and Fujimara, J.H. Eds.
MAYER, S. and Rutovitz, J. 1996 Trojan Tomatoes: Genetically engineered for delayed softening and ripening. Greenpeace, draft report, unpublished.
MCMELVEY, M. 1996.Evolutionary Innovations: The Business of Biotechnology. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
McKELVEY, M. 1997. 'Coevolution in Commercial Genetic Engineering.' Industrial and Corporate Change, 6, 3, 503-32.
MURCOTT, A. Ed. 1998. The Nation's Diet. The Social Science of Food Choice. Longman, London.
ORSENIGO, L. 1989. The Emergence of Biotechology: Institutions and Markets in Industrial Innovation. Pinter. London.
SANTICH, B. 1995. The Original Mediterranean Cuisine.Wakefield. Kent Town, Australia.
SCHUCH, W. and Poole, N. 1993. 'The Evolution of the Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in Europe.' In YODER, J.I. Ed.
SMITH, A.F. 1996. Pure Ketchup. A History of America's National Condiment. With Recipes. University of South Carolina Press. Coumbia
SMITH, A.F. 1994. The Tomato in America: Early History, Culture, and Cookery. University of South Carolina Press. Columbia
STAR, S.L. Ed. 1992a Ecologies of Knowledge. Work and Politics in Science and Technology. State University of New York Press. New York.
STAR, S.L. 1992 'The Trojan Door: Organisations, work and the "open black box"' , Systems Practice, 5, 4, 395-410.
TANKSLEY, S.D. 1993 'Development and application of a molecular linkage map in tomato', in Yoder, Ed.Yoder, J.I. Ed. 1993. Molecular Biology of Tomato: Fundamental Advances and Crop Improvement. Technomic Publishing. Lancaster USA.
ZABEL, P., Van Wordragen, M., Weide, R., Liharska, T., Stam, P., and Koornneef, M. 1993 Integration of the classical and molecular linkage maps of tomato chromosome 6., in Yoder Ed.
Copyright Sociological Research Online, 1999