Hjerm, M. (1998)
'Reconstructing "Positive" Nationalism:
Evidence from Norway and Sweden'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 3, no. 2, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/3/2/7.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 5/3/98 Accepted: 2/6/98 Published: 30/6/98
'How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements?'
- I would rather be a citizen of Norway/ Sweden than of any other country in the world.
- The world would be a better place if people from other countries were more like the Norwegians/ Swedes.
- Generally speaking, Norway/ Sweden is a better country than most other countries.
- People should support their country even if the country is in the wrong.
- When my country does well in international sports, it makes me proud to be Norwegian/ Swedish.
Figure 1: Proportion of people in Norway and Sweden that 'agree strongly' or 'agree' with the five nationalist statements (per cent).
'There are different opinions about immigrants from other countries living in Norway/Sweden. (By 'immigrants' we mean people who come to settle in Norway/Sweden) How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements?'
- Immigrants increase crime rates.
- Immigrants are generally good for Norway's/Sweden's economy.
- Immigrants take jobs away from people who were born in Norway/Sweden.
- Immigrants make Norway/Sweden more open to new ideas and cultures.
|Increase crime rates||0.43||0.38|
|Good for economy||0.23||0.35|
|Take jobs away||0.36||0.39|
|Make country more open to new ideas and cultures.||0.39||0.39|
|%||Nationalism correlation (Pearson's r)||%||Nationalism correlation (Pearson's r)|
|Norway/Sweden should limit imports to protect economy||40.5||0.34||41.4||0.42|
|Norway/Sweden should follow own interests even if it leads to conflict||38.3||0.39||44.6||0.37|
|Foreigners should not be allowed to buy land in Norway/Sweden||39.3||0.31||35.9||0.30|
|Television should give preference to Norwegian/ Swedish programs||23.9||0.23||22.2||0.41|
Adjusted means (Beta)
Adjusted means (Beta)
|Service I and II||- 0.50||-0.26|
|Routine non- manual||0.13||-0.08|
|Skilled and unskilled manual||0.47||0.32|
2 The aspects used by Knudsen are pride in the democracy, the social security system and equal treatment of different groups in society.
3 He calls it regime legitimacy, but from his theoretical argumentation it is possible to imply the notion of civic instead.
4 Billig (1995) also argues that everyone is aware of their national belonging, but that this is not the same thing as nation is something that is easily acounted for.
5 Hutchinson (1987) claims that cultural nationalism could be seen as a positive form of nationalism. It is positive in its importance for the transformation of belief systems of communities, and the modernization of the latter. Hutchinson argues that cultural nationalism is the unifier of traditional (conservative) and 'modern' values. However, this form of nationalism is still always put in relation to others, in this case culture. Hence, the first objection above, against the existence of any positive nationalism, is clearly salient. Hylland-Eriksen (1996) has for instance little positive to say about Norwegian cultural nationalism .
6 There is a sixth statement included in the questionnaire. However it was excluded since it did not measure the same dimension as the other five when tested with Crombach's alpha.
7 The statements also produce a one factor solution in both the examined countries.
8 If that statement is excluded the difference in average falls to only 0.3 units.
9 The first and third statements have been inverted in order to make the statements go in the same direction.
10 Dowds and Young use the ISSP material for Britain to examine national identity and nationalism in Britain. Even if their findings are interesting, they do not really have clear concepts of the two notions which results in a somewhat dubious distinction between them, if such exists at all.
11 Ganzeboom and Treiman (1994) have made it possible to recode the ISCO68 into Goldthorpe classes, which has proved to be very helpful.
12 Secondary school originally consisted of two categories in the two countries, but they are not totally compatible and have, therefore, been collapsed into one category to make them comparable. The university category originally consisted of incomplete university and completed university, but have here been collapsed into one category.
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