Delanty, G. (1998) 'Social
Theory and European Transformation: Is there a European Society?'
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Received: 12/2/98 Accepted: 30/3/98 Published: 31/3/98
... among European peoples there is a tendency to form, by spontaneous movement a European society which has, at present, some idea of itself and the beginning of organization. If the formation of a single human society is forever impossible, a fact which has not been proved, at least the formation of continually larger societies brings us vaguely near the goal. (Durkheim, 1960: pp. 405 - 6)
... today ... the different nations of Europe are much less independent of one another, because, in certain respects, they are all part of the same society, still incoherent, it is true, but becoming more and more self-conscious. What we call the equilibrium of Europe is a beginning of the organization of this society. (Durkheim, 1960: p. 121).
... this relation of facts can be directly observed in most striking fashion in the international division of labour history offers us. It can truly be said that it has never been produced except in Europe and in our time. But it was at the end of the eighteenth century and at the beginning of the nineteenth century that a common conscience of European societies began to be formed. (Durkheim, 1960: p. 281).
2 This is discussed more fully in Delanty 1995a and 1996a. See also Bodei (1995) and Fontana (1995).
3 For some general debates and overviews see Davis and Rootes (1994), Rhodes et al (1997) and Lehning and Weale (1997).
4 I have discussed some of these conceptions of Europe as a spiritual discourse in Delanty (1995a and 1995b).
5 On European citizenship see Meehan (1993), MacCormick (1993; 1996), Close (1995), Cesarni and Fulbrook (1996), Preuss (1996a, 1996b, 1996c), Delanty (1997a).
6 On global or transnational citizenship see Baubock (1994), Soysal (1994), Jacobsen (1997).
7 On federalism see Burgress (1989), Tushnet (1990), King and Bosco (1994), Marquand (1994), G. Smith (1995).
8 For some perspectives on European identity and suranational identity see Cerutti (1992), Derrida (1992), Garcia, (1993), Wendt (1994), Bodei (1995).
9 This has been argued from quite different perspectives. See Luhmann (1990), Zolo (1992), Peters (1993).
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