Coates, G. (1997) 'Organisation
Man - Women and Organisational Culture'
Sociological Research Online, vol. 2, no. 3, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/3/7.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 12/2/97 Accepted: 26/9/97 Published: 30/9/97
This article deals with some issues of women and the organisation man/corporate culture thesis. Unlike many studies (e.g. Fletcher et al, 1993), there is a need to make a distinction between women and men concerning their perceptions and roles. A need to clarify the changes that have taken place in relation to the corporate culture thesis. The analysis in this paper is based on initial research material. It deals with the above issues in relation to gender in contemporary society, asking as it does, if the notion of corporate culture has changed to one where both men and women are implicated in the project at a full, emotional level.
... the culture movement grew directly out of dissatisfaction with neo- rationalism's inability to fully utilize the productive potential of an uncommitted labour force. (Kunda and Barley, 1988: p. 26).
|Age||19 - 25||26 - 30||31 - 35||26 - 40||41 - 45||46 - 50||50+||Total|
|% Men in Age||6.6||25||30.3||13.8||18.4||4 .6||1.3|
|Total % in Age Group||10||39||47||21||28||7||2||64|
|% Women in Age||7.1||34.3||21.4||20||11.4||5 .7|
|Total % in Age Group||33.3||38.7||24.6||40||22.2|
|Hours||30-40||41- 50||51-60||61-70||71- 80||81+||Total|
|Influence||Your Organisation||Manager||Colleagues||Family||Friend s||Media||Other|
I try to act the same as male colleagues, but I don't feel its right. After all, what good does it do me as a woman?
It's like being at home, a second set of domestic roles. I find I'm asked to clean things up more than male colleagues. I'm made to feel it's my job and yet something I'm probably not used to.
It's like a man wearing a skirt to work and expecting to be taken seriously. I have to look like a woman and act like a man. I guess its what schizophrenics must feel like.
I do feel sometimes that I am working twice as hard as the others. You cant really complain about it as they feel you are probably not a good mother.
I usually have to do the chores when I get home, Brian wouldn't know where to start. Sometimes the kids do them, but usually it's me.
I do the washing up occasionally, but I get home later than Sarah. If I didn't have to stay late most nights I'm sure I would do the cooking, sometimes. (Male)
The one thing they expect these days is that you put the time in. You cant be seen running off to pick Johnny up from school, not if you want to achieve promotion.
Promotion is about putting new skills to work. You undertake training to compete for the next job up, not to stand still. Why would they pay for the training if they weren't going to promote me?
... if I do a job like a man does, and have the same qualifications, I want to get paid like a man. It's only fair isn't it?
I want to stay here and become a senior manager, but it's difficult to make a name for yourself here as a woman.
... pessimism about the labour market has risen since 1989 among all income groups, but has increased almost fivefold among the highest earners (14% of this group in 1989 expected unemployment to go up, compared with 71% in 1991). After all, redundancies have risen by an unprecedented extent in the generally well-paid south east... (Cairncross, 1992: p. 30)
Of course promotion is nice, it brought me more responsibility, but it also brought more insecurity. I know if my results don't remain high, I could be 'asked to leave' É it's quite stressful these days.
There isn't really any time for myself once I've got in, made dinner for the family and washed-up. There isn't enough hours in the day.
Once you get a certain way up the tree, you can delegate. It makes my job easier if I can pass things on. Being in senior management there is an onus on socialising rather than sweating. (Male)
Of course I'm a team player, and I'm not just saying that. In today's climate you can only get things done that way. Men tend to say it and not believe it.
The difficulty lies not in the provision of childcare facilities, but the cost. (Male)
There are still two distinct management groups, men on one side and women on the other. We still don't share more information than is necessary. (Male)
We used to have a project planning department. Now my role has expanded to take on board the planning stage as well.
I like having a greater role to play, it's more satisfying really, though a little tiring at times.
I think it's a general malaise, all companies are feeling the pinch. People are being asked to do more for their salary. In the end they work you till your wrung out. I still love the challenge work gives me though.
We had a weekend away, but it was a trip for the boys really, we women never got a real chance to express our abilities. I found I had to be 'one of the boys' just to get heard.
Human resource management doesn't recognise gender, it doesn't see your other life, it doesn't see society. It doesn't see anything É in order to make the organisation work.
I really try hard at the general staff level, but if your not a bloke you don't get the reciprocation. What can you do? I want to participate fully in the organisation.
|Socialisation||Rule- following, Inter-Positional||Negotiated rule making, Inter- personal|
Style||Bureaucratic personality||Charismatic personality|
Performance||Individual assignments||Team-work and project management|
|Mode of Social
Control||Impersonal, Explicit rules||Personalised, Implicit rules|
|Hierarchy||Explicit and extended||Implicit and truncated|
Style||Command and control||Facilitate and empower|
|Authority||Position and status||Leadership and contribution|
|Promotion||Explicit achievement criteria/ time-serving||Implicit achievement criteria/ contribution and personal compatibility|
There is an emphasis on qualification now, there never used to be. The appraisal process is geared towards who has got the least and why. (Male)
My husband and I were divorced last year because of my job. He said I loved it more than him. It gets to the point where you are married to the job, but then so was he to his.
Commitment is important for any organisation, as it is here. We need to have committed and loyal staff to function, everything relies on everyone else. (Male)
Of course I'm committed to this organisation, it's my life, my livelihood. I enjoy what I do and I'm good at it. I don't want to be just a housewife, I want to be respected too.
I'm committed. What you have to understand is that this is my job, not just raising kids, that's my other life.
Medium of changing the simulacra of an original identity in the organisation which does not exist ... thus erasing the members feeling of the history of the organisation. The history of the organisation thus becomes the copied 'basic' values of the moment, and yesterday's copy is a far distant past (Schultz, 1989: p. 14).
I have tried to get into middle management for some time now, but I get thwarted at every turn. My appraisal is never quite good enough for them. It sort of makes me less committed.
I find a drink helps me to unwind. It's quite stressful at work these days and I need a drink to get through the chores left for me at home. I'd go mad otherwise.
It's like one big family here, better than the real thing. Though some days I cant quite see it and I suddenly feel all alone É it's scary.
I don't see work as my whole life any more. My wife showed me that there was more to life than work. I feel lots better now. (Male)
All my mother could do was be a secretary É I wanted more from my life than nappies and a lazy husband, I want respect.
I'm kinda proud of my family. I feel like I'm doing something good for them. I'm glad I can provide for them.
I used to think work was the most important thing in my life. Now I believe I get more satisfaction out of my friends. Work is fine, but you cant 'know' it like a friend. (Male)
2 A cultural quick-fix however, is unthinkable in the present turbulent environment (Turner, 1992).
3 Tempered by the understanding that certain individuals will 'never' make this criteria, nor reach employment of this ilk (Brown and Scase, 1991).
4 While women have improved their position, they are still not achieving the really top positions - yet.
5 The emphasis upon workplace cleanliness for both sexes for one. However, old identities are not entirely shed as men will attempt to reassert their sexuality elsewhere. For example, the insidious situation of the sexual poster syndrome which intimidates women (Cockburn, 1985: p. 176).
6 The case now exists where some of those organisations thought to be truly representative of the British way of life, now have ownership abroad, Rover being one, Leyland-Volvo buses another (Flecker et al, 1992).
7 Only 5% of women respondents envisaged moving into self-employment at some time in the future. This tends to explode the Tory myth of the self-employed society (Bogenhold and Staber, 1993; Curran, 1990; Wheelock, 1992). It also points up that women in general are more likely to stay with their organisation than men - again contrary to accepted organisational wisdom.
8 Smircich (1983) for one believes the 'talk' concerning corporate culture is mainly rhetoric and questions the value of speaking about a (single) culture at all.
9 All quotes, unless otherwise stated, are from anonymous women.
10 To present the correct image, for example, of an engineer, a woman must present an idealised image of 'womanhood', by which she is judged first, and only then does the ability to perform the task come into the reckoning. In spite of attempts to promote the image of 'good' employee, it is the feminine qualities that employers judge individuals on. It is the way to identity and recognition. In some cases this has lead to sexual abuse (Kramer, 1989) and to individuals feeling their selves have been seriously affected (Schroedel, 1985) - legal regulation and redress has proved inept and outmoded (York, 1989).
11 Voluntary, not directed, signifies employees adopting the principles of HRM.
12 This is a positive shot in the arm for a move towards an HRM approach for employee relations (cf. Guest et al, 1993).
13 Men have adopted a positive stance to their experience of work effecting their family relations. They also feel leisure is a major source of satisfaction in their lives. Such findings moves the notion of men away from the organisation to other pursuits where identity and commitment were found. Women by contrast were becoming more inwardly focused, looking to the organisation as source of satisfaction, much as men originally did.
14 Often where divergence of results has arisen, researchers decide to adopt one set of findings as 'more true', negating the benefit of multi-methods, 'It is in the spirit of triangulation that inconsistent results may emerge; it is not its spirit that one should simply opt for one set of findings rather than another' (Bryman, 1989: p. 134).
15 Dent (1992) has noted that it is all too easy to confuse this notion of a culturalist (post)modernist organisation, built on a consumption-based model, with the productionist model of flexible specialisation. The latter is really 'old wine in new bottles' (cf. Lash and Urry, 1987: pp. 3 - 7).
16 There is more to single colour overalls for all than cheaper cleaning bills. It is to illustrate that all individuals, be they female or male, 'are all the same here'.
17 Here the state plays an important part through the regulation of legal constraints from the organisation to societal (Aglietta, 1979), thus creating more flexible relationships for the capital accumulation inherent in organisational action (Harvey, 1989).
ALVESSON, M. (1990) 'From Substance to Image', Organisation Studies, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 373 - 394.
ALVESSON, M. (1991) 'The Play of Metaphors in Organizational Analysis', Paper Presented To 'Towards A New Organizational Theory' Conference, Keele.
ALVESSON, M. and BERG, P. O. (1992) Corporate Culture and Organizational Symbolism: An Overview. Berlin: De Grutyer.
AMIN, A. (editor) (1994) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
ARBER, S. and GILBERT, N. (editors) (1992) Women and Working Lives: Divisions and Change. London: Basingstoke.
ARMSTRONG, P. J., GOODMAN, J. and HYMAN, J. D. (1981) Ideology and Shop-Floor Industrial Relations. London: Croom Helm.
ARYEE, S. (1994) 'The Social Organisation of Careers as a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage: The Case of Singapore', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 67 - 88.
BAGILHOLE, B. (1994) Women and Work: A Study of Under-achievement in the Civil Service. Aldershot: Avebury.
BAXTER, J. (1992) 'Domestic Labour and Income Inequality', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 229 - 250.
BERGGREN, C. (1995) 'Japan as Number Two: Competitive Problems and the Future of Alliance Capitalism After the Burst of the Bubble Boom', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 53 - 96.
BILLING, Y, D. and ALVESSON, M. (1994) Gender, Managers and Organisations. Berlin: De Gruyter.
BOGENHOLD, D. and STABER, U. (1993) 'Self- Employment Dynamics: A Reply to Meager', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 465 - 472.
BOTTERO, W. (1992) 'The Changing Face of the Professions: Gender and Explanations of Women's Entry to Pharmacy', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 329 - 346.
BOWLES, M. L. (1993) 'The Gods and Goddesses: Personifying Social Life in the Age of Organisation', Organisation Studies, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 395 - 418.
BOWLES, M. L. and COATES, G. (1993) 'Image and Substance: the Management of Performance as Rhetoric Or Reality?', Personnel Review, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 3 - 21.
BRATTON, J. (1991) 'Japanisation at Work: The Case of Engineering Plants', Work Employment and Society, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 377 - 396.
BROWN, P. and SCASE, R. (editors) (1991) Poor Work: Disadvantage and the Division of Labour. Buckinghamshire: OUP.
BROWN, P. (1995) 'Cultural Capital and Social Exclusion: Some Observations On Recent Trends In Education, Employment and the Labour Market', Work, Employment And Society, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 29 - 51.
BROWN, R. K. N. (1990) 'A Flexible Future in Europe?: Changing Patterns of Employment in the United Kingdom', British Journal of Sociology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 301 - 327.
BRYMAN, A. (1989) Research Methods and Organizational Studies. London: Unwin Hyman.
BURRELL, G. (1984) 'Sex and Organisational Analysis', Organisation Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 97 - 118.
CAIRNCROSS, F. (1992) 'The Influence of the Recession', in Jowell, R., et al (editors) British Social Attitudes: The 9th Report. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
CHECKLAND, P. B. and SCHOLES, J. (1991) Soft Systems Methodology In Action. Chichester: John Wiley.
CLARK, H., BARRY, J. and CHANDLER, J. (1995) 'Work Stress and The Marginalisation of Women: A Politics of Oppression', Paper Presented to the 13th Annual Labour Process Conference.
COATES, G. (1992) 'Towards The Use of Employees as A Resource, Not a Cost', Educational and Training Technology International vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 169 - 179.
COATES, G. (1994) 'Performance Appraisal as Icon: Oscar-Winning Performance or Dressing to Impress?', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 167 - 192.
COATES, G. (1995) 'Is This the End? Organising Identity As a Post-Modern Means to a Modernist End', Sociological Review, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 828 - 855.
COCKBURN, C. (1985) Machinery Of Dominance. London: Pluto.
COCKBURN, C. (1991) In the Way of Women: Men's Resistance to Sex Equality in Organisations. London: Macmillan.
COLLINSON, D. L. (1992) Managing the Shopfloor: Subjectivity, Masculinity and Workplace Culture. Berlin: De Gruyter.
CROMPTON, R. (1989) 'Women in Banking: Continuity and Change Since the Second World War', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 141 - 156.
CROMPTON, R. and JONES, G. (1984) White Collar Proletariat. London: Macmillan.
CURRAN, J. (1990) 'Re-Thinking the Economic Structure: Exploding the Role of the Small Firm and Self-Employment in the UK Economy', Work, Employment and Society, 4, Special Issue, 125 - 146.
DALTON, M. (1964) Men Who Manage: Fusion of Feeling and Theory in Administration. Wiley: New York.
DAVIES, S. (1990) 'Inserting Gender Into Burawoy's Theory of The Labour Process', Work, Employment and Society vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 391 - 406.
DENT, M. (1992) 'Flexible Specialisations, Management Strategies And Postmodernism: New Organisation Forms In The Private And Public Sectors', Paper To The 1992 BSA Conference, Kent.
DEVINE, F. (1992) 'Gender Segregation in the Engineering and Science Professions: A Case of Continuity and Change', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 557 - 576.
DORE, R. (1989) 'Where Are We Now?', Work, Employment And Society, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 425 - 446.
ECCLESTON, B. (1989) State And Society in Post-war Japan. London: Polity Press.
EVANS, L. (1990) 'The Demographic-Dip: A Golden Opportunity for Women in the Labour Market?', National Westminster Quarterly Review.
FEARFULL, A. and KERFOOT, D. (1996) 'Capitalising on 'Femininity': An Analysis of HRM, 'Skill' Use and Emotional Labour in Women's Work', Paper Presented to the 14th Labour Process Conference, Aston.
FERNER, A., EDWARDS, P., and SISSON, K. (1995) 'Coming Unstuck? In Search Of The "Corporate Glue" In An International Professional Service Firm', Human Resource Management, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 343 - 362.
FINEMAN, S. (editor) (1993) Emotion In Organisations. London: Sage.
FISKE, D. W. and CAMPBELL, D. T. (1959) 'Convergent and Discriminant Validation by The Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix', Psychological Bulletin, vol. 56, pp. 81 - 105.
FLECKER, J., THOMPSON, P. and WALLACE, T. (1992) 'Taking Control: An Analysis of Organisational Consequences of Mergers and Acquisitions in the UK and Austria', paper presented to the 10th EGOS Colloquium, Vienna.
FLETCHER, C., HIGGINBOTHAM, R., NORRIS, P. (1993) 'The Interrelationships of Managers' Work Time and Personal Time', Personnel Review, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 55 - 64.
GABRIEL, Y. (1992) 'The Organisational Dreamworld: Workplace Stories, Fantasies and Subjectivity', Paper Presented at the 10th International The Labour Process Conference on 'The Organisation and Control of The Labour Process', Aston.
GAGLIARDI, P. (1990) Symbols And Artefacts: Views Of The Corporate Landscape. Berlin: De Gruyter.
GARRAHAN, P. and STEWART, P. (1992) The Nissan Enigma: Flexibility At Work In A Local Economy. London: Cassell.
GHERARDI, S. (1992) 'The Symbolic Order of Gender in Organisational Cultures', Paper Presented To 10th Annual SCOS Conference, Lancaster.
GOFFMAN, E. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
GOLDSMITH, W. and CLUTTERBUCK, D. (1985) The Winning Streak. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
GOTTFRIED, H. and GRAHAM, L. (1993) 'Constructing Difference: The Making of Gendered Subcultures In A Japanese Automobile Assembly Plant', Sociology vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 611 - 628.
GREGORY, J. (1992) 'Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 461 - 474.
GRINT, K. (1991) The Sociology of Work: An Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
GUEST, D., PECCEI, R. and THOMAS, A. (1993) 'The Impact of Employee Involvement on Organisational Commitment and 'Them and Us' Attitudes', Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 191 - 200.
HARVEY, D. (1989) The Condition Of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into The Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Blackwell.
HASSARD, J. and PYM, D. (editors) (1990) The Theory and Philosophy of Organisations: Critical Issues And New Perspectives. London: Routledge.
HEARN, J. and PARKIN, W. (1991) 'The Narratives of Oppressions: From Paradigms and Metaphors to Gender and Sexuality to the Inter- Relations of Multiple Oppressions', Paper Presented To 'Towards A New Organizational Theory' Conference, Keele.
HENDRY, C. (1990) 'New Technology, New Careers: The Impact of Company Employment Policy', New Technology, Work And Employment, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 31 - 43.
HOCHSCHILD, A. (1983) The Managed Heart. University of California Press.
HOCHSCHILD, A. (1993) 'Contesting Rules at Work or Subordinating Needs at Home', Paper Presented to the 1993 BSA Conference, Essex.
JANOWITZ, M. (editor) (1991) On Social Organisation And Social Control. Chicago: University Of Chicago.
JENKINS, S. and BUSWELL, C. (1994) 'Gender, Employment and Workplace Culture', Paper Presented to BSA Annual Conference, Preston.
JONUNG, C. and PERSSON, I. (1993) 'Women and Market Work: the Misleading Tale of Participation Rates in International Comparisons', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 259 - 274.
KERFOOT, D. and KNIGHTS, D. (1993) 'Management, Masculinity and Manipulation: From Paternalism to Corporate Strategy in Financial Services in Britain', Journal of Management Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 659 - 678.
KIRKBRIDE, P. (1988) Legitimising Arguments and Workplace Resistance', Employee Relations, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 28 - 31.
KRAMER, L. (1989) 'A Guilty Plea Confirms The Dark Rumours About Capital Hill Aide Quentin Crommelin', People Magazine, vol. 21, August, pp. 49 - 50.
KUNDA, G. and BARLEY, S. R. (1988) 'Designing Devotion: Corporate Culture And Ideologies Of Workplace Control', Paper Presented To The American Sociological Association's 83rd Annual Conference, Atlanta.
LAM, A. (1992) Women and Japanese Management: Discrimination and Reform. London: Routledge.
LASH, S. and URRY, J. (1987) The End Of Organised Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
LINCOLN, J. R. and KALLEBERG, A. L. (1990) Culture, Control and Commitment. Cambridge: University Press.
LINSTEAD, S. (1991) 'Re-Reading "Reading Castaneda": Post-modern Themes and Issues in The Study Of Organizations', Paper Presented To 'Towards A New Organizational Theory' Conference, Keele.
LINSTEAD, S. and GRAFTON-SMALL, R. (1992) 'On Reading Organisational Culture', Organisation Studies, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 331 - 355.
LIVINGSTONE, D. W. and LUXTON, M. (1989) 'Gender Consciousness at Work: Modification of the Male Breadwinner Norm Among Steelworkers and their Spouses', The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 240 - 275.
MAN TSUNG, C. (1991) 'The Japanese Permanent Employment System: Empirical Findings' Work and Occupations, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 148 - 171
McDOWELL, L. and PRINGLE, R. (editors) (1992) Defining Women: Social Institutions and Gender Divisions. Cambridge: Polity Press.
McEWEN, E. (editor) (1990) The Unrecognised Discrimination: Views to Provoke A Debate. London Age Concern.
MERCER, D. (1988) How The Worlds Most Successful Corporation is Managed IBM. London: Koran Page.
MILKMAN, R. (1987) Gender At Work. Urbana: University Of Illinois Press.
MORGAN, G. (1986) Images of Organisation. London: Sage.
MORGAN, G. (1990) Organizations in Society. London: Macmillan.
MORGAN, G. and KNIGHTS, D. (1991) 'Gendering Jobs: Corporate Strategies, Managerial Control and Dynamics of Job Segregation', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 181 - 200.
MORRIS, L. (1991) 'Women's Poor Work', in P. Brown and R. Scase (editors) Poor Work: Disadvantage and the Division of Labour. Buckinghamshire: OUP.
MORRIS, L. D. (1989) The Workings of the Household. Oxford: Polity.
NEWELL, S. (1993) 'The Superwoman Syndrome: Gender Differences in Attitudes Towards Equal Opportunities At Work and Towards Domestic Responsibilities at Home', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 272 - 290.
OGBONNA, E. and NOON, M. (1995) 'Experiencing Inequality: Ethnic Minorities and the Employment Training Scheme', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 537 - 558.
O'REILLY, J. (1992) `Where Do You Draw The Line? Functional Flexibility, Training and Skill in Britain and France', Work, Employment And Society, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 369 - 396.
OLIVER, N. (1990) 'Work Rewards, Work Values and Organizational Commitment in an Employee Owned Firm', Human Relations vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 513 - 526.
OLIVER, N. and WILKINSON, B. (1988) The Japanization of British Industry. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
PAHL, R. (1993) 'Rigid Flexibilities? - Work Between Men and Women', Work, Employment and Society vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 629 - 642.
PANORAMA, BBC1 1994.
PASCALE, R. T. and ATHOS, A. G. (1982) The Art of Japanese Management. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
PFAU-EFFINGER, B. (1993) 'Modernisation, Culture and Part-Time Employment: the Example of Finland and West Germany', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 383 - 410.
PONDY, L. R., FROST, P. J., MORGAN, G. and DANDRIDGE, T. C. (editors) (1983) Organisational Symbolism. Greenwich: Jai Press.
REED, M. (1990) 'The Labour Process Perspective on Management Organisation: A Critique and Reformulation', in Hassard, J., Pym, D., (editors) The Theory and Philosophy of Organisations: Critical Issues and New Perspectives. London: Routledge.
REED, M. and HUGHES, M. (editors) (1992) Rethinking Organisation: New Directions in Organisational Theory And Analysis. London: Sage.
REED, M. and WHITAKER, A. (1992) 'Organisational Surveillance and Control Under Re-Organised Capitalism: Managerial Control Strategies and Structures in The Era of Flexible Fordism', Paper To The 1992 10th International Conference on the Organisation and Control of The Labour Process, Aston.
RISKA, E. and WEGAR, K. (1993) Gender, Work and Medicine: Women and the Medical Division of Labour. London: Sage.
ROHLEN, T. P. (1980) 'The Juku Phenomenon', Journal of Japanese Studies vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25 - 37.
ROSE, N. (1991) Governing The Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London: Routledge.
ROWLINSON, M., HASSARD, J., FORRESTER, P. and BENNETT, D. (1990) 'Who Wants Harmonization?', Paper Presented At Conference, Cardiff.
SCASE, R. and GOFFEE, R. (1989) Reluctant Managers. London: Unwin Hyman.
SCHROEDEL, J. R. (1985) Alone in a Crowd. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
SCHULTZ, M. (1989) 'Postmodern Pictures of Corporate Culture', Paper Presented To The CSMLO Postmodern Management - Implications for Learning Conference, Barcelona.
SCOTT, J., ALWIN, D. and BROWN, M. 'Generational Changes in Gender-Role Attitudes: Britain in a Cross-National Perspective', Sociology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 471 - 492.
SHAW, G. (1992) 'Beyond Entertainment: American Corporate Theatre', Paper Presented to the 10th SCOS Conference, Lancaster.
SIMS, D., FINEMAN, S. and GABRIEL, Y. (1993) Organising and Organisations: An Introduction. London: Sage.
SMIRCICH, L. (1983) 'Concepts of Culture and Organisational Analysis', Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 28, pp. 339 - 358.
SOLZHENITSYN, A. (1974) One Day in The Life of Ivan Denisovitch. London: Penguin.
STILL, L. (1992) Enterprising Women: Australian Women Managers and Entrepreneurs. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
THOMPSON, P., and McHUGH, D. (1990) Work Organizations: A Critical Introduction. London: Macmillan.
TRUSS, C. J. G. (1993) 'The Secretarial Ghetto: Myth or Reality? A Study of Secretarial Work in England, France and Germany', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 7, 4, pp. 561 - 584.
TURNER, B. (1990) 'The Rise of Organizational Symbolism', in Hassard, J., Pym, D. (editors) The Theory and Philosophy of Organizations: Critical Issues and New Perspectives. London: Routledge.
TURNER, B. (1992) Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology. London: Routledge.
WALBY, S. (1989) 'Flexibility and the Changing Sexual Division of Labour', in Wood, S. (editor) The Transformation of Work. London: Unwin Hyman.
WARDE, A. (1990) 'Household Work Strategies and Forms of Labour', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 495 - 515.
WARDE, A. and HETHERINGTON, K. (1993) 'A Changing Domestic Division of Labour?: Issues of Measurement and Interpretation', Work, Employment and Society, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23 - 46.
WEBB, E. J., CAMPBELL, D. T., SCHWARTZ, R, D., SEECHREST, L. and GROVE, J. B. (1996) Unobtrusive Measures : Non-Reactive Research in the Social Sciences. Chicago : Rand Mcnally.
WEBER, M. (1985) The Protestant Work Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism. London: Routledge.
WHEELOCK, J. (1992) 'The 'Entrepreneurial Family': Flexibility Within Small Business', Paper Presented to the Labour Process Conference, Aston.
WHYTE, W. H. (1956) The Organisation Man. New York: Simon & Schuster.
WILLIAMS, K., HASLAM, C. and WILLIAMS, J. (1992) 'Ford-V-"Fordism": The Beginning of Mass Production', Work, Employment And Society, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 517 - 556
YORK, G. (1989) 'Judge Offers an Apology for Comment on Slapping', The Globe And Mail, 23 September.
YOUNG, E. (1989) 'On The Naming Of The Rose: Interests and Multiple Meanings as Elements of Organisational Culture', Organization Studies vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 187 - 206