Copyright Sociological Research Online, 1996
...it is hard to speak against empowerment which, along with the proverbial motherhood and apple pie, is above reproach. (Stevenson and Parsloe, 1993: p. 55)
....employed uncritically the common-sense notion of 'race', reified it and then attributed it with the status of a scientific concept. (1989: p. 72)
...Some of the people in the organisation or community under study participate actively with the professional researcher throughout the research process from the initial design to the final presentation of results and discussion of their action implications. (1991: p. 20)
The purpose was to empower the oppressed to come to understand and change their own oppressive realities. (Lather, 1988: p. 572)
...makes claims to know how things really are, while all too often ignoring what people are actually saying and doing. (1985: p. 188)
Although the word [empowerment] has become wedded to a discourse that stresses the need to 'listen to the people' and to understand the 'reasoning behind local knowledge' in order to arrive at appropriate alternatives 'from below', it is difficult to deny the connotation it carries of an 'injection of power' from outside aimed at changing the balance of forces..... No matter how firm the commitment to good intentions, the notion of 'powerful outsiders' helping 'powerless insiders' slips constantly in. (1992: p. 275)
Not all members at that time accepted that racism exists, or that it was an issue which deserved the Association's proposing redirection of resources. (1991: p. 141)
The process was 'democratic', but mainly in the sense that everyone had an equal say in the final decision making, rather than full participation in the whole decision-making process. (1989: p. 24)
...a recognition of the realities of racism, but nevertheless a conviction that a guilty abstention from any involvement with black people was less useful than an attempt to work together in addressing issues of racism, poverty and poor housing.(1989: p. 29)
I have to send the children to the shops for me, but often they will come back crying, saying [people] have stolen the money from them or something. I just don't know what to do, can you do anything to help? (Wardhaugh, 1991: p. 162)A man spoke of his family's frightening ordeal:
The worst ... was when they set light to the door, they fastened a sack or something to the door, placed petrol on it and set it alight. Luckily we were all still awake, well, I hardly dare go to sleep at night, I'm always waiting for something to happen. So no-one was hurt, but we've had enough now, they'll have to move us, we just can't stay here. (Wardhaugh, 1991: p. 163)Such accounts reveal the impact of racism in the area on many local families.
He thinks I'm at the shops now, you know [laughs] ... I'm not really supposed to be here. ... I can't stay too long, though, as I can't explain being out for more than a couple of hours. (Wardhaugh, 1991: p. 154)
...this survey has highlighted our inexperience and lack of expertise and knowledge in this area. (Harvie, 1991: p. 187)Another stated:
We think that we are non-racist, but filling in this form has made us realize that we are not positive enough towards anti-racism. We feel that many other refuges are like us... (Harvie, 1991: p. 188)
...had I the political awareness of racism which I now have, I may not have undertaken this research project. It seems more appropriate for work with Black women to be carried out by Black women. (1990)
Ultimately we have to take responsibility for the decisions we make, rather than trying to deny the power that we do have as researchers. (1989: p. 590)
BALLARD, R. (1979) 'Ethnic minorities and the social services' in V. S. Khan (editor) Minority Families in Britain: Support and Stress. London: Macmillan.
BECKER, H. S. (1967) 'Whose side are we on?', Social Problems, vol. 14, pp. 239-47
BERGER, P. L. (1963) Invitation to Sociology: a Humanistic Perspective. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
BHAVNANI, K. (1988) 'What's power got to do with it? Empowerment and social research', Text vol. 8, pp. 41-50
BHAVNANI, K. (1993) 'Talking racism and the editing of women's studies' in D. Richardson and V. Robinson (editors) Introducing Women's Studies: Feminist Theory and Practice. London: Macmillan.
BRAH, A. (1992) 'Women of South Asian origin in Britain: issues and concerns' in P. Braham, A. Ratansi and R. Skellington (editors) Racism and Anti-racism: Inequalities, Opportunities and Policies. London: Sage.
BRYANT, B. and BRYANT, R. (1982) Change and Conflict: a Study of Community Work in Glasgow. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.
CHARSLEY, S. R. (1986) '"Glasgow's miles better": the symbolism of community and identity in the city' in A. P. Cohen (editor) Symbolising Boundaries: Identity and Diversity in British Cultures. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
CHECKLAND, S. G. (1981) The Upas Tree: Glasgow 1875-1975.....and After 1975-1980. Glasgow: University of Glasgow Press.
CHEETHAM, J., JAMES, W., LONEY, M., MAYOR, B. and PRESCOTT, W. (1981) (editors) Social and Community Work in a Multiracial Society. London: Harper and Row.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (1977) Gilding the Ghetto: the State and the Poverty Experiments London: C.D.P. Interproject Editorial Team.
COOK, J. A. and FONOW, M. M. (1986) 'Knowledge and women's interests: issues of epistemology and methodology in feminist sociological research' Sociological Inquiry, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 2-29.
CORNWELL, J. (1984) Hard-earned Lives: Accounts of Health and Illness from East London. London: Tavistock.
DOUGLAS, J. (1992) 'Black women's health matters: putting black women on the research agenda' in H. Roberts (editor) Women's Health Matters. London: Routledge.
ELLIS, J. (1989) Breaking New Ground: Community Development with Asian Communities. London: Bedford Square Press (National Council for Voluntary Organisations).
FINCH, J. (1984) '"It's great to have someone to talk to": the ethics and politics of interviewing women' in C. Bell, and H. Roberts (editors) Social Researching: Politics, Problems, Practice. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
FOSTER, P. (1995) Women and the Health Care Industry: an Unhealthy Relationship. Buckingham: Open University Press.
GLASGOW DISTRICT COUNCIL (1995) Glasgow's Housing Plan for the 90s: a Sharper Focus. Glasgow: City Housing.
HAMMERSLEY, M. and ATKINSON, P. (1983) Ethnography: Principles in Practice. London: Tavistock.
HARVIE, L. (1990) "Fighting the Whole World?" Action-research on Sexual Violence Against Asian Women in Glasgow, (unpublished ms).
HARVIE, L. (1991) 'Sexual violence and the voluntary sector: Asian women and wife abuse' in A. M. Bowes and D. Sim (editors) Demands and Constraints: Ethnic Minorities and Social Services in Scotland. Edinburgh: SCVO.
KAZI, H. (1986) 'The beginning of a debate long due: some observations on "Ethnocentrism and socialist-feminist theory"', Feminist Review, vol. 22, pp. 87-91.
KINGSLEY, S. (1985) Action-Research: Method or Ideology? Wivenhoe: Association of Researchers in Voluntary Action and Community Involvement.
LASLETT, B. and RAPOPORT, R. (1975) 'Collaborative interviewing and interactive research', Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 968-77.
LATHER P. (1988) 'Feminist perspectives on empowering research methodologies' Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 257-277.
LAWRENCE, E. (1982) '"In the abundance of water, the fool is thirsty": sociology and black "pathology"' in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (editors) The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
LEES, R. and SMITH, G. (editors) (1975) Action- research in Community Development. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
LIDDLE, J. and JOSHI, R. (1986) Daughters of Independence: Gender, Caste and Class in India. London: Zed.
LONG, N. and LONG, A. (1992) (editors) Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development. London: Routledge.
LORDE, A. (1994) 'Age, race, class and sex: women redefining difference' in H. Crowley and S. Himmelweit (editors) Knowing Women: Feminism and Knowledge. Cambridge: Polity Press.
MAAN, B. (1992) The New Scots: the Story of Asians in Scotland. Edinburgh: John Donald.
MASEIDE, P. (1991) 'Possibly abusive, often benign, and always necessary. On power and domination in medical practice', Sociology of Health and Illness, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 545-61
MAMA, A. (1989) The Hidden Struggle. London: London Race and Housing Research Unit.
MILES, R. (1989) Racism. London: Routledge.
MURRAY, C. (1991) 'Ethnic minorities and community work: the experience of Crossroads Youth and Community Association' in A. M. Bowes and D. Sim (editors) Demands and Constraints: Ethnic Minorities and Social Services in Scotland. Edinburgh: SCVO.
NOWIKOWSKI, S. E. and BOWES, A. M. (1983) 'Action-research in multi-racial Glasgow', unpublished ms (available from author).
OAKLEY, A. (1981) 'Interviewing women: a contradiction in terms' in H. Roberts (editor) Doing Feminist Research. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
OPIE, A. (1992) 'Qualitative research, appropriation of the "other" and empowerment', Feminist Review, vol. 40, pp. 52-69
PARMAR, P. (1982) 'Gender, race and class: Asian women in resistance' in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (editors) The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
RAMAZANOGLU, C. (1989a) Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression. London: Routledge.
RAMAZANOGLU, C. (1989b) 'Improving on sociology: the problems of taking a feminist viewpoint', Sociology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 427-442.
RAMAZANOGLU, C. (1990) Methods of Working as a Research Team (Women Risk and AIDS Project Paper 3). London: Tufnell Press.
REINHARZ, S. (1992) Feminist Methods in Social Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
RHODES, P. J. (1994) 'Race-of-interviewer effects: a brief comment', Sociology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 547-58.
RIBBENS, J. (1989) 'Interviewing - an "unnatural situation"?', Womens Studies International Forum, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 579- 92.
ROBERTS, H. (1981) (editor) Doing Feminist Research. London: Routledge.
SCHENSUL, S. L. (1974) 'Skills needed in action anthropology: lessons from El Centro de la Causa', Human Organisation, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 203-9.
SCOTT, S. (1992) 'Evaluation may change your life, but it won't solve all your problems' in P. Aggleton, A. Young, D. Moody, M. Kapula and M. Rye (editors) Does it Work? Perspectives on the Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Health Promotion. London: Health Education Authority.
SILVERMAN, D. (1985) Qualitative Methodology and Sociology. Aldershot: Gower.
SOLOMON, B. B. (1976) Black Empowerment - Social Work in Oppressed Communities. New York: Columbia University Press.
STAVENHAGEN, R. (1971) 'Decolonizing applied social sciences', Human Organisation, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 333-43.
STEVENSON, O. and PARSLOE, P. (1993) Community Care and Empowerment. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation with Community Care.
STRAUSS, A. (1978) Negotiations: Varieties, Contexts, Processes and Social Order. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
SUTHERLAND, A. (1975) Gypsies: The Hidden Americans. London: Tavistock.
TOURAINE, A. (1981) The Voice and the Eye. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
TOWN, S. (1973) 'Action-research and social policy: some recent British experiences', Sociological Review, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 573- 96.
WARDHAUGH, J. (1989) Asian Women and Housing: the Potential for Community Action, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Stirling.
WARDHAUGH, J. (1991) 'Asian women: campaigning for self-help' in A. M. Bowes and D. Sim (editors) Demands and Constraints: Ethnic Minorities and Social Services in Scotland. Edinburgh: SCVO.
WHYTE, W. F. (1991) Participatory Action- research. London: Sage.
YOUNG, K. and CONNELLY, N. (1981) Policy and Practice in the Multi-racial City. London: Policy Studies Institute.